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A comparison of Tesla's patents covering wireless transmission using both atmospheric conduction and earth resonance principles reveals the basic transmitting and receiving apparatus are identical.*  The systemic differences are in the potential that is required at the active transmitter's elevated terminal, and also in the operating frequency.  The usable base spectrum is about the same for both methods.  "I would say that the frequency should be smaller then twenty thousand per second, through shorter waves might be practicable" and on the low end, "a frequency of nine hundred and twenty-five per second" is used "when it is indispensable to operate motors of the ordinary kind."  When using the 'closed circuit' method the system can be operated at any arbitrarily selected point within this region.  With the earth resonance method it is compulsory that the system be operated on some harmonic of the fundamental earth-resonance frequency, described by Tesla as being approximately 11.78Hz. ["Nikola Tesla and the Diameter of the Earth : A Discussion of One of the Many Modes of Operation of the Wardenclyffe Tower," K. L. Corum and J. F. Corum, Ph.D. 1996.]

Tesla described the World System earth resonance principle in the patent ART OF TRANSMITTING ELECTRICAL ENERGY THROUGH THE NATURAL MEDIUMS, Apr. 17, 1906, Canadian Patent No. 142,352, Aug. 13, 1912 of which this is the associated illustration: 

Tesla described the World System atmospheric current displacement principle in the patent SYSTEM OF TRANSMISSION OF ELECTRICAL ENERGY, Sept. 2, 1897, U.S. Patent No. 645,576, Mar. 20, 1900 of which this is the associated illustration:

Tesla's statements, and illustrations such as these show there is no difference in the basic apparatus.  In reality there are not two different systems, one "open" and the other "closed."  There is only one system and it can be operated in either a closed circuit mode or in one that is closed, but not "in the ordinary acceptance of the term" [ON LIGHT AND OTHER HIGH FREQUENCY PHENOMENA].  It is the objective of ongoing investigations to determine what these words truly mean.

There is no substantial difference in the transmitting apparatus whether or not the earth is resonated when the system is in operation.  If some harmonic of the approximately 11.73 Hz fundamental earth resonance frequency is used--such as 17.595 kHz--then the transmitter power output must be sufficient in order to overcome the initial 'core' losses and achieve global propagation.  In either case the full-power receiving apparatus are identical.

[*] An exception is noted in the dual-tower form of earth-resonance transmitter.  "The specific plan of producing the stationary waves, here-in described, might be departed from. For example, the circuit which impresses the powerful oscillations upon the earth might be connected to the latter at two points." [ART OF TRANSMITTING ELECTRICAL ENERGY THROUGH THE NATURAL MEDIUMS, Apr. 17, 1906, Canadian Patent No. 142,352, Aug. 13, 1912]

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Latest revision: 04/25/2012

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