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The Generation of Plasma Waves at the Earth's Surface for World System Telecommunications Purposes

[DRAFT, REVISED 02/21/2008]

 

 

1.1      Reduced to the minimum required apparatus, the Tesla World System might be comprised of two attuned electrical oscillators, each consisting of an RF power supply connected to the earth and a vertical top-loaded helical resonator.  The ground connections would be constructed so as to introduce the least possible resistance to the earth.  The oscillators themselves would be positioned a great distance apart.

 

1.2      In operation a radio-frequency current is applied to each of the two helical resonators creating, at each location, an oscillating magnetic field.  In turn, the oscillating magnetic field induces an oscillating electric field.  The oscillating electromagnetic field creates a weak to highly ionized plasma in the vicinity of each resonator, depending on the amount of power applied to the oscillation transformer primary.  The volume of the ionized region is proportional to the peak energy of the oscillation.  If the two resonators have a 180deg phase relationship with each other they are optimally aligned for connection of their respective magnetic fields

 

1.3      In addition to the inductively coupled discharge created plasma, conditions also exist for the creation of capacitively coupled discharge plasma between the two respective elevated terminals. 

 

1.4      The ionosphere provides an existing path to which a connection could be made.

 

1.5      The upper troposphere is available for a conductor if a plasma state can be induced within that region.

 

1.6      At the elevated terminal potential characteristic of the system as configured for telecommunications purposes only (which is relatively low), the current between the elevated terminals is, at least in part, dielectric displacement current.

 

1.7      For high power energy transmission by true electrical conduction, a very high potential on the elevated terminal is needed in order to break down the insulating stratum around and above each plant.  The ionization of the atmosphere directly above the elevated terminals could be facilitated by the use of an ionizing beam of ultraviolet radiation to form what might be called a high-voltage plasma transmission line.

 

1.8      It is believed that a plasma wave is developed at the earth’s surface as part of this process.

 

1.9      These would be either electrostatic waves or more likely magneto-hydrodynamic waves, assuming the presence of inter-connected magnetic field lines. 

 

1.10   Propagation of the ion acoustic wave in plasma bears a resemblance to Tesla’s description of “the universal medium . . . a gaseous body in which only longitudinal pulses can be propagated, involving alternating compressions and expansions similar to those produced by sound waves in the air.

 

1.11   Plasma is an electrical conductor with finite resistivity; model is to incorporate a value for the effective resistance between the two elevated terminals as well as earth resistance and that of the ground connections.

 

1.12   The HAARP system apparatus consists of a phased array of HF antennas.  Its operation involves the generation of electromagnetic waves at the Earth’s surface and their subsequent conversion to electrostatic waves in the ionosphere.  [Wong, A. Y., G. J. Morales, D. Eggleston, J. Santoru, and R. Behnke, “Rapid conversion of electromagnetic waves to electrostatic waves in the ionosphere,” Phys. Rev. Lett., 47, 1340-1343, 1981.]

 

 

2.1      An alternative to the World System apparatus described in 1.1 is two attuned electrical oscillators, each consisting of an RF power supply connected to the earth and a vertical top-loaded helical resonator placed in close proximity to each other.  In another configuration one of the resonators would not be driven but rather free vibrating. 

 

2.2      The purpose of this type of transmitter is to induce a powerful electrical current flowing through the earth between the two ground terminals.  In operation a powerful current flows through the subsurface between the two ground terminals.  An interaction also takes place between the two elevated terminals. 

 

2.3      The electrical disturbance created by this type of transmitter extends out to a great distance.  With sufficient input power it will produce global displacements of the earth’s charge.  By using an appropriate resonant frequency, that is to say, one at which the earth oscillates, the degree of charge displacement increases over time. 

 

2.4      The operational characteristics of this transmitter are similar to those of the World System transmitter-receiver pair described in paragraphs 1.2 and 1.3.

 

2.5      An improved elevated terminal was disclosed in “New Art of Projecting Concentrated Non-Dispersive Energy Through Natural Media” ca. 1936.  At that time the following announcement appeared, “Tesla Prepares to Send Power Without Wires, Inventor, 80, Announces Solution of Problem He Worked on for 35 Years.  Earth Will Carry Current. 100-Million-Volt Plant to be Build in Foreign Land" (N. Y. Herald Tribune, July 27, 1936).

 

2.6      In operation a radio-frequency current is applied to each of the two helical resonators creating at each location an oscillating magnetic field.  In turn, the oscillating magnetic field induces an oscillating electric field.  The oscillating electromagnetic field creates a weakly to highly ionized plasma in the vicinity of each resonator.  The volume of the ionized region is proportional to the peak energy of the oscillation.  If the two resonators have a 180deg phase relationship with each other they are optimally aligned for connection of their respective magnetic fields. 

 

 

 

Definitions

 

Plasma Known as the "Fourth State of Matter", plasma is a substance in which many of the atoms or molecules are effectively ionized, allowing charges to flow freely.  Since some 99% of the known universe is in the plasma state and has been since the Big Bang, plasmas might be considered the First State of Matter.  Plasmas have unique physics compared to solids, liquids, and gases; although plasmas are often treated as extremely hot gases, this is often incorrect.  Examples of plasmas include the sun, fluorescent light bulbs and other gas-discharge tubes, very hot flames, much of interplanetary, interstellar, and intergalactic space, the earth's ionosphere, parts of the atmosphere around lightning discharges, laser-produced plasmas and plasmas produced for magnetic confinement fusion.  Types of plasmas include - Astrophysical, Collisionless, Cylindrical, Electrostatically Neutral, Inhomogeneous, Intergalactic, Interstellar, Magnetized, Nonneutral, Nonthermal, Partially Ionized, Relativistic, Solid State, Strongly Coupled, Thermal, Unmagnetized, Vlasov and more.

 

Inductively coupled discharge A plasma created by applying an oscillating, radiofrequency potential to an inductive coil. The oscillating current in the coil creates an oscillating magnetic field, which in turn induces an oscillating electric field. Power is coupled to the plasma through the acceleration of electrons by the oscillating electric field.

 

Capacitively Coupled Discharge Plasma Plasma created by applying an oscillating, radio-frequency potential between 2 electrodes. Energy is coupled into the plasma by collisions between the electrons and the oscillating plasma sheaths. If the oscillation frequency is reduced, the discharge converts to a glow discharge.

 

Plasma Wave A disturbance of a plasma away from equilibrium, involving oscillations of the plasma's constituent particles and/or the electromagnetic field. Plasma waves can propagate from one point in the plasma to another without net motion of the plasma. Terms used to describe the many kinds of waves in plasmas include: Alfven, Circularly Polarized, Cold Plasma, Drift, Electromagnetic, Electron-Cyclotron, Electron Plasma, Electrostatic, Electrostatic Ion, Electrostatic Ion Cyclotron, Evanescent Extraordinary, Ion-Acoustic, Ion Cyclotron, Ion Plasma, Ion Sound, Langmuir, Left Circularly Polarized, Light, Longitudinal, Lower Hybrid, Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD), Magnetosonic, Negative Energy, Nonlinear, Ordinary, Parallel, Perpendicular, Plane, Radio, Right Circularly Polarized, Shock, Space-Charge, Transverse Travelling, Unmagnetized, Upper-Hybrid, Vlasov, Whistler.

 

Ion acoustic wave A longitudinal compression wave in the ion density of a plasma. For more information see (e.g.) Stix, Thomas Howard. _Waves in Plasmas_, American Institute of Physics, New York, 1992.

 

Magnetohydrodynamic Waves Material (fluid) waves in an electrically conducting fluid in the presence of a magnetic field.  They are described by magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), a physical model of electrically conducting fluids interacting with magnetic and electric fields.  MHD theory is relevant at relatively low frequencies and for distance scales larger than the Larmor radius. Also known as hydromagnetics.

 

Electrostatic Wave or Plasma Electrostatic Wave One of three categories of plasma waves: electromagnetic, electrostatic, and hydrodynamic (magnetohydrodynamic). Wave motions, i.e. plasma oscillations, are inherent to plasmas due to the ion/electron species, electric/magnetic forces, pressure gradients, and ‘gas-like’ properties that lead to shock waves. Electrostatic waves are longitudinal oscillations appearing in plasma due to a local perturbation of electric neutrality. For a cold, unmagnetized plasma, the frequency of electrostatic waves is at the "plasma frequency"

 

 

Glossary

 

Adiabatic Plasma Part of plasma confinement system which involves particles where the orbit radius and orbit period are small compared to the characteristic scales of length and time.  In such plasma confinement the individual particles closely follow the magnetic field lines by tightly circling them.  The motion of these particles can be described by drift formalism and gyration centers.  On average, such plasma can be readily described by a well-defined theory - magnetohydrodynamics - MHD.

 

Cold Plasma Model Model of a plasma in which the temperature is neglected.

 

Dielectric tensor Tensor describing the three-dimensional plasma response to three-dimensional electric fields; see (e.g.) Stix, Thomas Howard.  Waves in Plasmas, American Institute of Physics, New York, 1992 for details.

 

Drift Waves Plasma oscillations arising in the presence of density gradients, such as at the plasma's surface.

 

E x B drift Single-particle drift motion (see entry) which arises from crossed electric and magnetic fields.

 

Electromagnetic Wave or Plasma Electromagnetic Wave One of three categories of plasma waves: electromagnetic, electrostatic, and hydrodynamic (magnetohydrodynamic). Wave motions, i.e. plasma oscillations, are inherent to plasmas due to the ion/electron species, electric/magnetic forces, pressure gradients, and ‘gas-like’ properties that can lead to shock waves.

 

Faraday Rotation The orientation of the electric field vector of an electromagnetic wave propagating parallel to a magnetic field embedded in a plasma rotates as the wave propagates. This rotation is called Faraday rotation and measurements of it can be used to deduce the strength of the magnetic field.

 

Force-Free Currents Currents which run parallel to the total magnetic field and therefore experience no Lorentz (J cross B) force.

 

Fully Ionized Plasma A plasma in which all the atoms or molecules have been ionized. Compare to weakly ionized plasma.

 

Glow Discharge Low-density, low-temperature plasma discharge (such as in a fluorescent light) which, well, glows. Sputtering in glow discharges is useful in plasma processing of materials. The voltage applied to the plasma must be greater than the ionization potential of the gas used; most of the plasma voltage drop is near the cathode, where the majority of ionization occurs. Discharge is sustained by secondary electrons emitted when ions or recombination radiation impact on the cathode; electrons are accelerated away from the cathode and ionize neutral gas in the discharge.

 

Guiding Center Particles placed in a magnetic field will gyrate in circles around the magnetic field lines, and drift in various directions. The guiding center represents the instantaneous center of the circular motion. The idea is that you can think of the guiding center as drifting, and the particle as orbiting the guiding center.

 

Gyrotron A device for producing microwave energy that utilizes a strong axial magnetic field in a cavity resonator to produce azimuthal bunching of an electron beam.

 

Hybrid resonance A resonance in a magnetized plasma which involves aspects of both bunching of lighter species parallel to the magnetic field, characterized by the plasma frequency; and perpendicular particle motions (heavier species) characterized by the cyclotron frequency.

 

Ionosphere A region of space surrounding a planet and its neutral atmosphere, containing both neutral and ionized gases. The Earth's ionosphere extends from 90 km to a few thousand kilometers, where it merges with the plasmasphere and the magnetosphere.

 

Kinetic Theory Theoretical approach which attempts to explain the behavior of physical systems using the assumptions that the systems are composed of large numbers of atoms/molecules/particles in vigorous motion, that energy and momentum are conserved in collisions of these particles, and that statistical methods can be applied to deduce the behavior of such systems. Kinetic theory has been applied to plasmas with considerable success, but is often computationally intensive.

 

Longitudinal Waves Waves where the variation of the field is partially or totally in the direction of propagation (parallel to wavennumber, k [a vector]). Examples include sound waves and Langmuir waves. Contrasted with transverse waves, where the variation is perpendicular to the direction of propagation, such as light waves. - John Cobb

 

Lorentz Gas Plasma model in which the electrons are assumed not to interact with each other, but only with ions (Z -> infinity) and where the ions are assumed to remain at rest (ion mass approximated as infinity). Also known as "electron gas."

 

Magnetic Pressure Pressure which a magnetic field is capable of exerting on a plasma; equal to the magnetic energy density; proportional to B^2. (The proportionality constant is 1/(2*mu_0) in SI units, 1/8pi in CGS units).

 

Magnetic Reconnection When a plasma has some resistivity, then the frozen-in flow requirement is relaxed (see frozen-in flow). In that case, the magnetic field can move through the plasma fluid on the resistive (magnetic diffusion) time scale. (This is typically slow compared to MHD timescales.) This allows field lines to reconnect with each other to change their topology in response to magnetic and other forces in the plasma. (See also Helicity, which is not conserved when reconnection is significant.) During reconnection, magnetic flux annihilates and transforms into plasma kinetic energy. For example, the predominant theory for solar flares is based on the transfer of energy from magnetic fields to plasma particles which can occur in reconnection. Reconnection is also studied in the laboratory. In many practical cases reconnection occurs even when the plasma is "collision less," i.e. its collisional resistivity is much too small to explain the short reconnection time scales that are observed.

 

Magnetron Class of vacuum devices with a closed ExB path for electron circulation. The term is used for both microwave sources and for sputtering discharges. The latter are widely used for physical vapor deposition (PVD) of thin films; they use magnets located behind an electrode to confine electrons, thereby allowing a plasma discharge to be sustained by electron-impact ionization at a reduced gas pressure, and enhancing the sputtering rate due to ion bombardment of the electrode.

 

Magnetohydrodynamic Instability (MHD instability) The class of unstable (growing, not damped) waves and other modes of oscillation, which are described by MHD theory.

 

Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) Physical model describing the properties of electrically conducting fluids interacting with magnetic and electric fields. MHD theory is relevant at relatively low frequencies and for distance scales larger than the Larmor radius. Also known as hydromagnetics.

 

Plasma Discharge Low-density, low-temperature plasma discharge (such as in a fluorescent light) which, well, glows. Sputtering in glow discharges is useful in plasma processing of materials. The voltage applied to the plasma must be greater than the ionization potential of the gas used; most of the plasma voltage drop is near the cathode, where the majority of ionization occurs. Discharge is sustained by secondary electrons emitted when ions or recombination radiation impact on the cathode; electrons are accelerated away from the cathode and ionize neutral gas in the discharge.

 

Plasma Frequency The natural collective oscillation frequency of a charge species (electrons, ions, etc.) in a plasma, in the absence of (or at least parallel to) a magnetic field. Also known as Langmuir or Langmuir-Tonks frequency; see also electrostatic waves, plasma oscillations.

 

Plasma Discharge Low-density, low-temperature plasma discharge (such as in a fluorescent light) which, well, glows. Sputtering in glow discharges is useful in plasma processing of materials. The voltage applied to the plasma must be greater than the ionization potential of the gas used; most of the plasma voltage drop is near the cathode, where the majority of ionization occurs. Discharge is sustained by secondary electrons emitted when ions or recombination radiation impact on the cathode; electrons are accelerated away from the cathode and ionize neutral gas in the discharge.

 

Plasma Oscillations Class of electrostatic oscillations which occur at/near the plasma frequency (see entry) and involve oscillations in the plasma charge densities. These modes are also known as Langmuir oscillations or Langmuir waves; in Stix's  Waves in Plasmas, they are more properly called Langmuir-Tonks Plasma Oscillations.

 

Plasma Physics The study of the physical characteristics, properties, and applications of plasmas (see entry above). Plasma physics encompasses the study of plasmas for industrial use (materials processing and lighting) through much of astrophysics (where most matter is in the plasma state) to fusion energy research.

 

Quasilinear Theory A weakly nonlinear theory of plasma oscillations which uses perturbation theory and the random phase approximation to find the time-evolution of the plasma state.

 

Quasineutral plasma A plasma (see entry) in which positive and negative charges are present in approximately equal numbers, so that there are no strong net electric fields.

 

Radio Frequency Current Drive Plasma waves in the radio-frequency range can be used to push resonant plasma particles in such a way that current forms in the plasma; this is a method of non-inductive current drive (see entry) which would allow for steady-state fusion reactors to operate. See also Radio Frequency Heating, below.

 

Radio Frequency Heating Process for heating the plasma by transferring energy to ions or electrons using waves generated by an external oscillator at an appropriate frequency, and propagated into the plasma. (This is similar to how a microwave oven heats food.) There are various types. See also electron cyclotron heating, ion cyclotron heating, and lower hybrid heating.

 

Resistive Magnetohydrodynamics Also known as non-ideal MHD, this is the branch of magnetohydrodynamics in which the finite resistivity of the plasma is taken into account.

 

Shock Wave A wave produced in any medium (plasma, gas, liquid or solid) as a result of a sudden violent disturbance. To produce a shock wave in a given region, the disturbance must take place in a shorter time than the time required for sound waves to traverse the region. The physics of shocks is a fundamental topic in modern science; two important cases are in astrophysics (supernovae) and hydrodynamics (supersonic flight).

 

Soliton Solitons, or solitary waves, are stable, shape-preserving and localized solutions of nonlinear classical field equations, where the nonlinearity opposes the natural tendency of the solution to disperse. They were first discovered in water waves, and there are several hydrodynamic examples, including tidal waves. Solitons also occur in plasmas. One example is the ion-acoustic soliton, which is like a plasma ``sound'' wave; another is the Langmuir soliton, describing a type of large amplitude (nonlinear) electron oscillations. Solitons are of interest for optical fiber communications, where it has been proposed to use optical envelope solitons as information carriers in fiber optic networks, since the natural nonlinearity of the optical fiber may balance the dispersion and enable the soliton to maintain its shape over large distances.

 

Space Charge In a plasma, a net charge which is distributed through some volume. Most plasma are electrically neutral or at least quasineutral, because any charge usually creates electric fields which rapidly move surplus charge out of the plasma. However, in some applications one wishes to apply external electric fields to the plasma, and a net space charge can be produced as a result. The resulting space charge must often be accounted for in the physics of these sorts of devices.

 

Test Particle  In calculations of plasma parameters such as the Debye Length (see entry) and electrical conductivity, it is often useful to analyze the Coulomb interactions of a sample plasma particle, or test particle, with the rest of the plasma. Such calculations are then said to use the test particle method.

 

Transport, in Plasmas The problem of understanding the motions of particles in a plasma (and the related flows of energy, momentum, and other physical quantities) is extremely important in many if not all areas of plasma research. The theory of transport in plasmas is highly complex, but an understanding of transport is vital to controlled fusion research (where insufficient energy confinement is a major obstacle to producing fusion energy), plasma astrophysics (where radiation transport through plasmas often plays a dominant role), and many other areas including high energy-density plasmas, plasma processing of materials, space plasmas, and more. Since plasmas are many-body systems, it is not possible to follow all 6 degrees of freedom of each particle in the plasma, and consequently statistical methods and fluid theories must be employed, though even these often prove barely tractable for realistic situations. The wide variety of possible plasma conditions (spanning over 30 orders of magnitude in density and over 6 orders of magnitude in temperature) leads to a wide range of phenomena, including flows, turbulence, waves and nonlinear wave-particle interactions, and shocks. Specific approximations are generally needed to treat specific classes of plasma conditions over specific time and distance scales. Some key topics in plasma transport research include the determination of transport coefficients such as viscosity and diffusivity, and related parameters such as electrical conductivity and particle and energy confinement times.

 

Weakly ionized plasma A plasma in which only a small fraction of the atoms are ionized, as opposed to a highly ionized plasma, in which nearly all atoms are ionized, or a fully ionized plasma, in which all atoms are stripped of all electrons nearly all the time.

 

Whistler A plasma wave which propagates parallel to the magnetic field produced by currents outside the plasma, at a frequency less than that of the electron cyclotron frequency, and which is circularly polarized, rotating about the magnetic field in the same sense as the electron gyromotion. The whistler is also known as the electron cyclotron wave. The whistler was discovered accidentally during World War I by large ground-loop antennas intended for spying on enemy telephone signals. Ionospheric whistlers are produced by distant lightning, and get their name because of a characteristic descending audio-frequency tone, which is a result of the dispersion relation for the wave: lower frequencies travel somewhat slower, and therefore arrive at the detector later.

 

Source: Plasma Dictionary