clear1px.gif (807 bytes) <<< Back

clear1px.gif (807 bytes)

 

WIRELESS ENERGY TRANSMISSION

 

In Search of Perpetual Knowledge

The dream of yesterday is the hope of today and the reality of tomorrow. -- Robert Goddard

Tuesday, March 20, 2007 5:23 PM
Original poster: "Jared Dwarshuis" <jdwarshuis@gmail.com>

Hidetsugu Yagi did research on wireless power transmission back in the mid twenties and presumably had some success with it. I believe he was using a multiple element antenna to transmit power. Clearly not a near field system.

Why do some people get so emotional about this topic?

Tuesday, March 20, 2007 11:07 PM
Original poster: Mike <megavolts61@yahoo.com>

Hidetsugu Yagi did research on wireless power transmission back in the mid twenties and presumably had some success with it. I believe he was using a multiple element antenna to transmit power. Clearly not a near field system.

Why do some people get so emotional about this topic? Is that the same person who invented the Yagi antenna? and I don't know why people get so heated up about this topic ha ha

Wednesday, March 21, 2007 6:52 PM

> Why do some people get so emotional about this topic? Is that the same person who invented the Yagi antenna? and I don't know why people get so heated up about this topic haha 

Same Yagi. Along with Uda he did pioneering ultra high frequency work in the late 1920's and early 1930's and published several articles including some in the Proceedings of the IRE. No power transmission though - all his work obeyed the laws of nature.

Ed

Thursday, March 22, 2007 7:11 PM
Original poster: "David Thomson" <dwt@xxxxxxxx.xxx>

Hi Ed,

> No power transmission though - all his work obeyed the laws of nature.

So here we get to the crux of the matter. Is it your opinion that wireless power transmission violates the laws of nature?

Dave

Thursday, March 22, 2007 10:05 PM
Original poster: SCOTT EWING <scottewing@xxxxxxxxx.xxx>

Myself, I don't think so. I believe Tesla coils, properly tuned, are resonant to the earths natural frequency 7.83Hz.

Friday, March 23, 2007 9:02 PM
Original poster: "Lau, Gary" <Gary.Lau@hp.com>

I've never heard of any Tesla coil tuned to anything remotely near 7.83 Hertz - have you?

Gary Lau
MA, USA

Saturday, March 24, 2007 8:39 PM
Original poster: Gerry Reynolds <tcmlmod@xxxxxxxxx.xxx>

Hi All,

This subject has come up in the past and has been squelched as one that has come up before. I personally don't have any hang ups on this topic and can consider it "on topic" since this was one of Tesla's endeavors. I guess as long as useful information is discussed it could continue. So, let me know what you all think.

Gerry

Original poster: "Lau, Gary" <Gary.Lau@xx.xxx>

I've never heard of any Tesla coil tuned to anything remotely near 7.83 Hertz - have you?

Gary Lau
MA, USA

Saturday, March 24, 2007 8:39 PM
Original poster: Mike <megavolts61@xxxxx.xxx>

A Tesla coil would certainly have to be about the size of Tesla's Wardenclyffe tower and according to Gary P, would have to have at least 75kW output to do even maintain such a standing wave, but given a topload the size of Wardenclyffe, couldn't the coil be designed such that one of the several Schumann resonance frequencies could be an odd multiple of the resonant frequency's 'effective quarter wave frequency wavelength' ? Musically, this would be like hitting the harmonic on the 12th fret (one octave above the fundamental frequency) or the next octave harmonic on the 5th fret (two octaves above the fundamental tone). Doing that certainly creates a standing wave on the guitar string even if not at the fundamental frequency. There are other frequencies a bit higher than 7.8Hz as well.
Mike

Sunday, March 25, 2007 7:13 PM
Original poster: "Gerry Reynolds" <gerryreynolds@xxxxxxxxx.xxx>

Hi Daniel,

Have you calculated the efficiency of the energy transfer??

Gerry

Original poster: "Daniel Costantino" <rocketry1991@xxxxx.xxx>
One comment on this is that a company transferred high amounts of energy using microwaves and bouncing it off a satellite and back down to earth, so wireless power has been done for long range and I have even used a standard magnetron with a makeshift horn antenna to power a florescent bulb from 3m away. With a 19 bd gain wifi antenna I was able to pick up the microwave energy from 9m. away to power a bulb dimly. in short high frequency wireless power if very reasonable and should be explored. (!!!!!!!!warning the trouble with this is microwave radiation is very harmful to the human body and organisms!!!!!!!!) I have been operating this from 10m away from the magnetron.
Daniel.

Saturday, March 24, 2007 11:13 PM
Original poster: Gerry Reynolds <tcmlmod@xxxxxxxxx.xxx>

I want to thank everyone that responded. That helps me and also helps calibrate others on the list.

I will allow a continuation of the topic, but I will decide whether to approve it based on the individual merits of the post. Hopefully, I can strike a happy medium.

Gerry

 

Tesla designed a global wireless energy transmission system capable of operating at 99% efficiency. It was based upon a 7.5-megawatt Tesla coil RF transmitter and was intended for the transmission of electrical energy on an industrial scale.

Much has already been done towards making my system commercially available, in the transmission of energy in small amounts for specific purposes, as well as on an industrial scale." ["The Transmission of Electrical Energy Without Wires," Nikola Tesla, Electrical World and Engineer, March 5, 1904]

Theoretically, it does not take much effort to maintain the earth in electrical vibration. I have, in fact, worked out a plant of 10,000 horse-power [about 7.5 million watts] which would operate with no bigger loss than 1 percent of the whole power applied; that is, with the exception of the frictional energy that is consumed in the rotation of the engines and the heating of the conductors, I would not lose more than 1 percent. In other words, if I have a 10,000 horsepower plant, it would take only 100 horsepower [or about 75,000 watts] to keep the earth vibrating so long as there is no energy taken out at any other place. [NIKOLA TESLA ON HIS WORK WITH ALTERNATING CURRENTS AND THEIR APPLICATION TO WIRELESS TELEGRAPHY, TELEPHONY AND TRANSMISSION OF POWER, Leland I. Anderson, Editor, Twenty First Century Books, 1992, p. 140]

For telecommunications alone a much less powerful transmitter will suffice.

"The results attained by me have made my scheme of intelligence transmission, for which the name of "World Telegraphy" has been suggested, easily realizable. It constitutes, I believe, in its principle of operation, means employed and capacities of application, a radical and fruitful departure from what has been done heretofore. I have no doubt that it will prove very efficient in enlightening the masses, particularly in still uncivilized countries and less accessible regions, and that it will add materially to general safety, comfort and convenience, and maintenance of peaceful relations. It involves the employment of a number of plants, all of which are capable of transmitting individualized signals to the uttermost confines of the earth. Each of them will be preferably located near some important center of civilization and the news it receives through any channel will be flashed to all points of the globe. A cheap and simple device, which might be carried in one's pocket, may then be set up somewhere on sea or land, and it will record the world's news or such special messages as may be intended for it. Thus the entire earth will be converted into a huge brain, as it were, capable of response in every one of its parts. Since a single plant of but one hundred horse-power [about 75,000 watts] can operate hundreds of millions of instruments, the system will have a virtually infinite working capacity, and it must needs immensely facilitate and cheapen the transmission of intelligence." ["The Transmission of Electrical Energy Without Wires," Nikola Tesla, Electrical World and Engineer, March 5, 1904]

Assuming that Tesla was correct in his assertion that it requires, let us say, 75,000 watts to resonate the earth--and no evidence has been presented to the contrary--this means that a 75,750-watt system would be capable of operating at 1% efficiency. The remaining 99% of the transmitted power would be consumed by various losses such as the production of eddy currents in the earth with their subsequent conversion to heat, acoustic energy, etc. and the minor production of electromagnetic radiation. In the operation of this type of system, 75,000 watts of power will be needed to compensate for the 75,000 watts that for one reason or another is either absorbed by the environment or lost in the form of electromagnetic radiation. Once again, I am talking about a system that is based upon a 75,750-watt transmitter. In this case only 750 watts or about 1% of the energy available from the transmitter is available for consumption anywhere on the earth's surface. In other words, at an idle the transmitter will consume fully 75,000 watts simply to maintain earth resonance. Add a single receiver with a 750-watt load attached to it or 100 million receivers each consuming .075 milliwatts of energy and the system will be maxed out.

As for frequencies, at Wardenclyffe Tesla operated from 1,000 Hz to 100 kHz. He found the frequency range up to 30 - 35 kHz, "to be most economical." Based upon an analysis of the Colorado Springs Notes and other sources, including Corum & Corum, it appears a basic World System oscillator would develop a wave complex with an extremely low frequency (ELF) component in the 6 - 1000 Hz range, obtained with an alternator, plus a very low frequency (VLF) component around 25 kHz.

Counsel

What would an engineer have to do to the wireless systems of today in order to produce very little radiation of electromagnetic waves and produce a large amount of these earth currents? What changes would he have to make in the system?

Tesla

He would have to construct and operate the apparatus described in my patents and in my lectures.

Counsel

He would have to get very much more inductance in the system than he has today, relatively?

Tesla

It is just like this: In an enterprise of this kind, you have to start with certain fundamental propositions. If you are to build a commercial plant, the question comes up how much money is it to cost. Now, you go to specify before your capitalists the various parts of the plant, and you will find that your machinery and the aerial structure will cost so much. If your capitalists are willing to go deep into their pockets, you can put up a tremendous antenna because, as you know, as I pointed out in 1893, that the effects will be proportionate to the capital invested in that part; but you will find great limits there.

I designed a plant [Wardenclyffe, referring to Fig. 83] years ago with a large capacity and put it before certain architects. They figured that the antenna would cost $450,000 and I had to modify my plans. As you see, you are limited by cost as to the size of the antenna; that is, you are limited as to the capacity and, furthermore, you have selected the frequency. In order to lower the frequency so that there would be no wasteful radiation of energy, you have to employ a large inductance. You have to employ a capacity as large as permissible, and you must use a large inductance in order that you may reach the low frequency which is economical.

Counsel

What low frequency is it that is economical?

Tesla

In a patent which appeared in April 1905, the application of which was filed on May 15, 1900, I have enunciated the law of propagation, which I have explained, and have stated that the frequencies should not be more than 30,000 or 35,000 cycles at most, in order to operate economically.

Counsel

And would it also be necessary to provide for the high potentials of the order of which you have named in order to insure maximum direct currents and minimum electromagnetic wave radiation?

Tesla

No sir. The currents are proportionate to the potentials which are developed under otherwise equal conditions. If you have an antenna of a certain capacity charged to 100,000 volts, you will get a certain current; charged to 200,000 volts, twice the current. When I spoke of these enormous potentials [on the order of 12 million volts], I was describing an industrial plant on a large scale because that was the most important application of these principles, but I have also pointed out in my patents that the same principles can be applied to telegraphy and other purposes. That is simply a question of how much power you want to transmit.

Counsel

In Colorado, which did you use?

Tesla

I used the so-called Tesla transformer. I did not have the high frequency machine with which I could develop as much energy for the experiments, but with my transformer I could get any amount of energy I needed. That is why I used the transformer. . . .


Counsel

I understand the situation. Was the power ever turned into this antenna at Wardenclyffe? Did you use it in that sense?

Tesla

Oh yes. I used the antenna. I used it right along up to 1907. I made my measurements and experiments, and I transmitted for the purpose of tests, energy and all that, but it never went further than is shown in the picture [Fig. 85]. Several times I spent $1,000 to paint the thing up, and that paint in a little while was off again.

Counsel

And these times, when you turned the power into the antenna for experiments, what frequencies did you use?

Tesla

I could operate from very low frequencies, from 1,000 cycles on -- to 100,000, 150,000, or 200,000. I had every facility to operate with the lowest frequencies up to the highest.

Counsel

How did you get those frequencies?

Tesla

The low frequencies I usually got from an alternator, and then with this other apparatus the higher frequencies.

Counsel

At what frequencies did you actually operate?

Tesla

I operated according to the nature of the experiment, as I say, from very low frequencies up to 100,000, but most generally I operated with the frequencies which I explained in my patent, say up to 30,000, which I have found to be most economical.

Counsel

What was the nature of those experiments you were making there?

Tesla

The experiments were telephonic, telegraphic demonstrations, measurements of energy, and all that.

Counsel

Was there any receiver station built in connection with this Wardenclyffe apparatus?

Tesla

No, except that I used transportable apparatus with which I made my measurements and received. [NIKOLA TESLA ON HIS WORK WITH ALTERNATING CURRENTS AND THEIR APPLICATION TO WIRELESS TELEGRAPHY, TELEPHONY AND TRANSMISSION OF POWER, Leland I. Anderson, Editor, Twenty First Century Books, 1992, pp. 143, 155] 

So there you have it.

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *

Tuesday, March 27, 2007 10:35 PM

Hi Gary,

I got your post. I want to study it before I send it out. Probably tomorrow.

Gerry
Thursday, March 29, 2007 12:25 AM

Hi Gary,

I've read and studied the article. The following contains some of Tesla's own words noted by quotes and a counsel interviewing Mr. Tesla. Who is talking in the non quoted text prior to the interview.

It looks like the 99% efficiency is related to the 75000 watts consumed by the earth resonant losses out of the 7.5 Meg watt put into the earth system. I guess this assumes that of the power put into the earth resonant system, all of the losses are known and accounted for by the 75000 watt figure and there is no power loss to space (ie, the ionosphere keeps the radiation trapped). From a plasma physics course I took a century ago, I remember that the angle for total reflection in the ionosphere is related to the frequency of the radiation. High frequencies penetrate at all angles of incident, medium frequencies penetrate at high angles of incident and reflect at shallow angles, and low frequencies reflect at steep angles of incident.

From what is said below, Tesla's tested at Wardenclyffe between 1KHz and 100KHz and found that 30-35Kz to be most economical. It is also stated that the world system oscilator would have an ELF component in the 6 to 1000 Hz range. It has been stated within our group that the earth resonant frequency is 7.8 Hz. Assuming this frequency is correct, did Tesla know that. I'm wondering why he said that 30-35KHz was most economical when he suggested the resonant frequency was so much lower than what he was testing. Sounds like he was only testing what a receiver would pick up with a transmitter in the 30-35 KHz range as oppose to an earth resonate system.
Thursday, March 29, 2007 9:34 PM

Hi Gary,

The 75Kw was Tesla's estimate of the losses and was suppose to include everything. Knowing what we know today, it this still a reasonable estimate?? Tesla said no losses are to space. Will the ionosphere trap the radiation with a 90 degree angle of incident in the 6-1000 Hz range???

Is the Schumann resonance of 7.8 Hz a measured resonance?? If so, are there any measurements of its Q??

If Tesla did not build any receiver, what did he measure??

Gerry

Saturday, March 31, 2007 12:46 AM

Hi Gary,

Just when I thought I was understanding this. Somehow, I created a paradigm where the earth (between ground and the ionosphere) was like a huge "microwave oven". You put power into it and some power leaks out. Some radiation gets out of the ionosphere and some eddy current losses in the ground, but most of it remains trapped between the two concentric spheres. Now I got to start over and learn a new concept.

What were Tesla's exact words on "no losses to space"?? I thought it was in your original email, but I cant find it. Now I don't know where that thought came from.

OK, I will forget all that radio stuff. You mentioned two conductive paths (thru earth and thru the troposphere). I would think that atmospheric conduction would require ionization. Since I forget most of what little I ever learned about the atmosphere structure, would the troposphere be the same as the ionosphere?? If not, what am I missing?? What is the effective resistance thru the troposphere between two points say 1000 miles apart or does it not matter. Like wise, I have always thought of the conductivity of earth as being ratter poor. Does this have a bearing on the resonance and the ability to get power (V^2/R) out of it. Do the transmitters and receivers require a really good ground connection (like deep into the earth).

Does the physics require both paths or is it an either/or scenario. Maybe what I'm asking here is a simple description (if this is possible) of the Schumann resonant mechanism.

Now, I will change hats and play devil's advocate. Many respected and knowledgeable members of our list view this Tesla concept as wrong and violating the laws of physics. What is the basis for their skeptism?? Has Tesla's concept been proven correct within the scientific community and if so, what area of science would be most familiar with it and what would be the best source of credible and scientifically accepted information on the subject??

Gerry

PS, would you mind if I posted our conversations to the group or would this be a repeat of whatever is currently archived?

 

Hi Jerry,

> Who is talking in the non quoted text prior to the interview.

All of the non-quoted text in my post to the List, i.e., the text without quotes, is of my own authorship.

> . . . of the power put into the earth resonant system, all of the losses are known and accounted for by the 75000 watt figure and there is no power loss to space (ie, the ionosphere keeps the radiation trapped). . . .

Actually, the 75 kw figure is all of the losses, including those in the form of electromagnetic radiation. Possible trapping of this radiation by the ionosphere may or may not have been a factor in what Tesla is believed to have done.

> . . . I'm wondering why he said that 30-35KHz was most economical when he suggested the resonant frequency was so much lower than what he was testing.

There are terrestrial resonances other than the Schumann resonance, which has a variable fundamental tone of approximately 7.8 Hz, and has only a few perceptible harmonics. The terrestrial resonance that Tesla is believed to have excited is called by some the earth resonance and is believed to have harmonics extending up to 35 kHz and beyond.

> . . . Sounds like he was only testing what a receiver would pick up with a transmitter in the 30-35 KHz range as oppose to an earth resonate system.

During the interview Tesla stated that no receiver station was ever constructed for use in conjunction with the Wardenclyffe transmitter. If built, the two stations would have been essentially identical, and would have been capable of handling the entire 200 kw available from the two Westinghouse alternators.

Regards,
Gary

Gerry,

> The 75Kw was Tesla's estimate of the losses and was suppose to include everything. Knowing what we know today, it this still a reasonable estimate?

The 75 kw figure appears to be the result of direct measurement.

> Tesla said no losses are to space.

What are his exact words in this regard, and where are they to be found?

> Will the ionosphere trap the radiation with a 90 degree angle of incident in the 6-1000 Hz range?

Once again, any electromagnetic radiation produced by the World System apparatus is accounted for as a loss and can be ignored. All of this angle-of-incidence stuff has to do with radio wave propagation--the skip and all that. It might be helpful for you to stop thinking about it and concentrate instead on the current flowing through the earth and better defining the physics of what is going on in regards to the interaction between the elevated terminals. The focus over the last 25 years has tended towards plasma physics and magneto-hydrodynamics.

> Is the Schumann resonance of 7.8 Hz a measured resonance? If so, are there any measurements of its Q?

Once again, that is radio stuff. In the World System, electrical energy is not propagated by means of the type of electromagnetic wave known as the "radio wave." The propagation is by means of an electrical current flowing through the earth between the ground terminals of the two stations. For sure there is an electromagnetic wave associated with this current, but it is not a radio wave. The EM wave in this case is of the type associated with an electrical current flowing through a transmission line. According to Maxwell's Equations these two forms of EM wave are algebraically indistinguishable from one another, but it is apparent that Maxwell's Equations are only an approximation in this regard. Furthermore, the universe is not algebraic; it is geometric [James Corum].

> If Tesla did not build any receiver, what did he measure?

Tesla did build relatively small receivers for the purpose of testing and measurement. By "receiver station" I am referring to the second full-size apparatus that is required for the implementation of the ground and atmosphere conduction method. Tesla developed two slightly different techniques for wireless energy transmission. The first one, based upon the principle of electrical conduction through both the ground and air, depends upon the passage of an electrical current through the earth between the two distant ground terminals and through the atmosphere between the two respective elevated terminals. According to Tesla's theory, this works because the density or pressure of the atmosphere at an elevation of 5 miles is sufficiently reduced so that its insulating properties can be easily impaired, allowing the electric current to flow. The denser atmosphere below 5 miles is also viewed as a propagating medium for the aboveground portion of the circuit, and, being an insulating medium, electrostatic induction is sometimes involved rather than true electrical conduction.

A powerful TC transmitter can charge an elevated terminal to a point where the atmosphere around it becomes strongly ionized. A vertical focused beam of ultraviolet radiation can be used to facilitate the ionization process directly above the terminal. This results in the formation of a conducting path up to the troposphere. This way, two distant facilities can be linked together with a conducting atmospheric path. Two conceptual steps leading to this solution were two balloon terminals, "maintained at an elevation of not more than thirty thousand to thirty-five thousand feet above sea-level" ["The Problem of Increasing Human Energy"] and a projection positioned at the very apex of the two respective elevated terminals. ["Rare Notes from Tesla on Wardenclyffe," L.I. Anderson, Electric Spacecraft Journal, Apr./May/Jun. Issue 26, Sept. 14, 1998, figure 3.]

The entire earth possesses a naturally existing negative charge or DC electrostatic potential with respect to the conducting region of the atmosphere, beginning at an elevation of about 50 kilometers. A Tesla coil transmitter creates a local disturbance in this charge that manifests itself as an annular deviation in the density of the background electric field. This disturbance propagates away from the transmitter and diminishes in intensity as the distance from the transmitter increases. With a sufficiently powerful transmitter the field distortion propagates all the way to the antipode at which point the energy is reflected back towards its point of origin. The transmission of electrical energy across the entire globe and its reflection back to its source is Tesla's second technique, using the principle of "earth resonance."

The basic ground-air system requires that both a transmitter and a receiver be present; there can be no current between ground terminals and between elevated terminals if no receiver exists. The earth resonance system, on the other hand, can be implemented without any man-made receivers being installed. The earth itself fulfills the requirement that a receiver be present. It remains to be seen if the fundamental earth-resonance frequency precisely coincides with the fundamental Schumann resonance frequency, which, by the way, drifts around in the area between 7.5 - 7.9 Hz.

Regards,
Gary

Gerry,

Please feel free to post this e-mail conversation to the Tesla Coil List. While much of this material has been posted before in some form or other, I find that with every reiteration a few new thoughts occur and the words come out better.

You wrote:
> . . . where the earth (between ground and the ionosphere) was like a huge "microwave oven".

Rather than a microwave oven, you might want to view the region between the earth and the ionosphere as being a resonant cavity with some similarity to the cavity resonators used in radio work for bandpass and notch filters, etc.

> You mentioned two conductive paths (thru earth and thru the troposphere). I would think that atmospheric conduction would require ionization.

You are correct. Consider the region of the troposphere between the two stations as being the gas inside of a partially evacuated Geissler tube, with the two respective elevated terminals in combination with the two vertical ionizing UV beams forming the two electrodes. Just as when a Geissler tube is lit by a high voltage applied to its terminals, when the two stations are put into operation the tropospheric atmosphere becomes ionized and an electrical current passes between the two virtual electrodes.

"I have constructed and patented a form of apparatus which, with a moderate elevation of a few hundred feet, can break the air stratum down. You will then see something like an aurora borealis across the sky, and the energy will go to the distant place." [NTAC, p. 110]

> . . . would the troposphere be the same as the ionosphere?

The entire ionosphere is more or less ionized all of the time. In a system using electrical conduction through the ground and through the air, only the portion of the troposphere between the two stations would be ionized.

> . . . What is the effective resistance thru the troposphere between two points say 1000 miles apart or does it not matter.

Under normal circumstances the troposphere is a weak non-conducting dielectric. If a powerful TC transmitter with an elevated terminal augmented by a vertical UV beam were to be switched on, the upper atmosphere in the vicinity of the conducting beam would, itself, become conducting through the process of ionization.

"For example, a conductor or terminal, to which impulses such as those here considered are supplied, but which is otherwise insulated in space and is remote from any conducting-bodies, is surrounded by a luminous flame-like brush or discharge often covering many hundreds or even as much as several thousands of square feet of surface, this striking phenomenon clearly attesting the high degree of conductivity which the atmosphere attains under the influence of the immense electrical stresses to which it is subjected. This influence is however, not confined to that portion of the atmosphere which is discernible by the eye as luminous and which, as has been the case in some instances actually observed, may fill the space within a spherical or cylindrical envelop of a diameter of sixty feet or more, but reaches out to far remote regions, the insulating qualities of the air being, as I have ascertained, still sensibly impaired at a distance many hundred times that through which the luminous discharge projects from the terminal and in all probability much farther. The distance extends with the increase of the electromotive force of the impulses, with the diminution of the density of the atmosphere, with the elevation of the active terminal above the ground, and also, apparently, in slight measure, with the degree of moisture contained in the air. I have likewise observed that this region of decidedly-noticeable influence continuously enlarges as time goes on, and the discharge is allowed to pass not unlike a conflagration which slowly spreads, this being possibly due to the gradual electrification or ionization of the air or to the formation of less insulating gaseous compounds. [SYSTEM OF TRANSMISSION OF ELECTRICAL ENERGY, Sept. 2, 1897, U.S. Patent No. 645,576, Mar. 20, 1900]

> . . . Likewise, I have always thought of the conductivity of earth as being rather poor.

According to Tesla the resistance of the earth as an electrical conductor is negligible due to the immense size of its cross section, and relative shortness as compared to its diameter.

"A [conducting] sphere of the size of a little marble offers a greater impediment to the passage of a current than the whole earth. . . . This is not merely a theory, but a truth established in numerous and carefully conducted experiments." ["The Future of the Wireless Art," Wireless Telegraphy & Telephony, Walter W. Massie & Charles R. Underhill, 1908, pp. 67-71]

"You must first understand certain things. Consider, for instance, the term "resistance." When you think of resistance you imagine, naturally, that you have a long, thin conductor; but remember that while resistance is directly proportionate to length, it is inversely proportionate to the section. It is a quality that depends on a ratio. If you take a small sphere of the same size of a pea, and compare its length with its section, you would find a certain resistance. Now you extend this pea to the size of the earth, and what is going to happen?

"While the length increases, say a thousand times or a million times, the section increases with the square of the linear dimensions, so that the bigger this thing is the less resistance it has. Indeed, if the earth were as big as the sun we would still be better off than we are; we could readily telephone from one end of the sun to the other by the system, and the larger the planet the better it would be. . . . The resistance is only at the point where you get into the earth with your current. The rest is nothing." [NTAC, pp. 134-135]

That the earth itself does in fact possess a very low resistance is supported by the existence of "monopole with earth return" mode HVDC electrical power transmission systems.

> Does this have a bearing on the resonance and the ability to get power (V^2/R) out of it.

Up to this point I have been talking about use of the ground-air conductivity principle. A system based upon earth resonance would also depend upon an electrical current flowing through the earth.

> Do the transmitters and receivers require a really good ground connection (like deep into the earth).

Yes, this is why Tesla invested so much time and effort into the underground portion of the Wardenclyffe tower. Here is Tesla's 1916 description of the station's earth terminal:

"In this system that I have invented it is necessary for the machine to get a grip of the earth, otherwise it cannot shake the earth. It has to have a grip on the earth so that the whole of this globe can quiver, and to do that it is necessary to carry out a very expensive construction. I had in fact invented special machines. . . . There was a big shaft about ten by twelve feet goes down about one hundred and twenty feet and this was first covered with timber and the inside with steel and in the center of this there was a winding stairs going down and in the center of the stairs there was a big shaft again through which the current was to pass . . . And then the real expensive work was to connect that central part with the earth, and there I had special machines rigged up which would push the iron pipe, one length after another, and I pushed these iron pipes, I think sixteen of them, three hundred feet, and then the current through these pipes takes hold of the earth. Now that was a very expensive part of the work, but it does not show on the tower, but it belongs to the tower." [NTAC, p. 203]

> Does the physics require both paths or is it an either/or scenario.

Tesla's point-to-point atmospheric conduction system depends upon the passage of electrical current through both the earth and the atmosphere.

"The earth is 4,000 miles radius. Around this conducting earth is an atmosphere. The earth is a conductor; the atmosphere above is a conductor, only there is a little stratum between the conducting atmosphere and the conducting earth which is insulating. . . . Now, you realize right away that if you set up differences of potential at one point, say, you will create in the media corresponding fluctuations of potential. But, since the distance from the earth's surface to the conducting atmosphere is minute, as compared with the distance of the receiver at 4,000 miles, say, you can readily see that the energy cannot travel along this curve and get there, but will be immediately transformed into conduction currents, and these currents will travel like currents over a wire with a return. The energy will be recovered in the circuit, not by a beam that passes along this curve and is reflected and absorbed, . . . but it will travel by conduction and will be recovered in this way. [NTAC, pp. 129-130]

> . . . what I'm asking here is a simple description (if this is possible) of the Schumann resonant mechanism.

While Tesla certainly spoke about exciting a terrestrial resonance mode, it does not appear that he was talking about exciting a Schumann resonance. The terrestrial resonance mode that he apparently excited in 1899 is referred to by some as an "earth resonance mode," which is different from the Schumann resonance modes. Also keep in mind that Tesla made a distinction between electrical transmission by atmospheric conduction and electrical transmission using earth resonance principles.

". . . In one the ionizing of the upper air would make it as good a conductor of electricity as a metal. In the other the power would be transmitted by creating "standing waves" in the earth by charging the earth with a giant electrical oscillator that would make the earth vibrate electrically in the same way a bell vibrates mechanically when it is struck with a hammer. . . ." ["Tesla Cosmic Ray Motor May Transmit Power 'Round' Earth," Brooklyn Eagle, July 10, 1932, John J. A. O'Neill]

I have already described some of the theory and technique that is associated with the atmospheric-conduction method. For all intents and purposes it requires that one more additional plants be placed into operation. (In the case of Wardenclyffe a second plant was to be constructed somewhere along the southern coast of England, possibly in Cornwall.) In addition to the atmospheric-conduction method the TC transmitter design is also adaptable to the earth resonance method. Note that a single earth-resonance TC transmitter can be made to perform exactly as intended without any additional stations being present. In this case the earth itself overrides the requirement that one or more additional stations be placed into operation. The physics involved in the atmospheric-conduction method seem to be fairly straightforward and are founded in the principles of magneto-hydrodynamics.

> . . . Many respected and knowledgeable members of our list view this Tesla concept as wrong and violating the laws of physics. What is the basis for their skepticism? 

Regarding the wireless transmission of electrical energy in the form of electromagnetic radiation through the excitation of a Schumann resonance mode, in my opinion the skepticism of those list members is very well founded. Of course this does not appear to be one of the Tesla concepts for wireless energy transmission.

> Has Tesla's concept been proven correct within the scientific community and if so, what area of science would be most familiar with it and that would be the best source of credible and scientifically accepted information on the subject?

Almost all of the principles that Tesla expounded in regards to his form of wireless transmission have been scientifically verified. The only item of which I am aware that still requires verification is Tesla's assertion that the earth can be electrically resonated. Much of the work to date has been done by James and Kenneth Corum.

Best regards,
Gary

Gerry,

You wrote:
> My plan is to take snippets from the collection of conversations and make a presentation to the group.

Sounds good to me. I would like to do one more go-around after you have removed all of the >s and edited your portions of the text. This would allow me to clarify my remarks, if necessary, and also to address any additional questions that you might have. I have in mind doing a follow-up conversation in order to address any questions that might come in from others on the list.

> I was hoping that you still have the emails that I sent you. . . .

Just as with this reply to your message Subject: "Tesla's experiment," the "Re: Wireless Power Transmission" thread preserves all of your original messages, each one following immediately after my individual response--you'll see.

Gary

Paul,

Thanks for your comments on Henry's assessment of the feasibility of efficient power transfer via the E-I cavity and Schumann resonances. All three of us are in agreement that the wireless transmission of electrical energy in the form of electromagnetic radiation through the excitation of a Schumann resonance mode is not practical.

As for publishing this material to the world-wide web, Gerry Reynolds is preparing a summary document about Tesla's system for the transmission of electrical energy without wires based upon the Q&A sessions in which Gerry and I are presently engaged, plus input received from Henry, yourself, and anyone else who chooses to participate in the discussion. With this in mind, I would like to hear your thoughts on the feasibility of Tesla's "closed circuit" form of wireless energy transmission. The final document, along with follow-up questions from the Tesla coil research community will be posted on the Tesla Coil Mailing List, and archived at www.pupman.com and elsewhere.

Best regards,
Gary

Gary Peterson
Twenty First Century Books
P.O. Box 2001
Breckenridge, CO 80424-2001
Phone: 970-453-9293 Fax: 970-453-6692
www.teslaradio.com 
www.teslabooks.com 
www.teslascience.org 

Henry,

Thanks for your valuable input.

Towards the end of your first message you wrote:
> The principal difference between the Tesla system and low frequency radio is that a radio transmitter is designed primarily to radiate power from its antenna, whereas the Tesla communications transmitter is designed primarily to inject current into the earth at its ground terminal. The mode of propagation for both systems appears to me to be the same; i. e., earth currents and surface charge coupled to a vertical electric field in the Earth-ionosphere cavity.

You describe the mode of propagation for both the Tesla system and LF radio systems as, "earth currents and surface charge coupled to a vertical electric field in the Earth-ionosphere cavity." While this does not seem to be a description of space wave electromagnetic radiation, it does, however, seem to be consistent with the description of an electrical current flowing through a transmission line and its associated electromagnetic field.

Am I correct that the principle means of LF radio propagation is by space waves? Also, do you think it is possible to distinguish between the EM field associated with a radio wave propagating through free space and the EM field associated with an electrical current flowing through a transmission line?

Best regards,
Gary Peterson

Henry,

In response to your follow-up message, part of what I hope will be a long-term ongoing discussion, I have another question and a few thoughts.

First of all, do you think it is correct to say that a transverse electromagnetic wave in the neighborhood of a transmission line is coupled to charge carriers in the conductor while the electromagnetic field associated with a space wave is not associated with any actual charge carriers at all?

In regards to frequencies, Tesla specified 35 kHz as the highest practicable for efficient operation of his wireless apparatus. Jim Corum considers 50kHz to be the maximum usable frequency. These correspond nicely with your "VHF and below" figure, so I suggest that 30 kHz be used as the upper limit when modeling both the open and closed circuit Tesla systems.

In regards to radio transmitting antennas, grounded or not, they are all intended for the launching of radio waves into free space. This is unquestionably true for the special case of an ideal dipole antenna. Grounded quarter-wavelength monopole antennas can be substituted for dipole antennas only because ground is a fairly good conductor for medium and low frequency RF current, and thus acts as a large mirror for the radiated energy.

A typical low frequency transmitter produces two types of disturbance. The first is a radio space wave, as is produced by a dipole antenna. This disturbance consists of a sky-wave component and a ground-wave component. The ground-wave component, in turn, includes a direct and indirect component. The indirect component is the result of an interaction of the ground wave with the earth's surface, another outcome of which is the production of the well-known Norton Surface Wave.

The other type of disturbance produced by a grounded quarter-wavelength vertical monopole antenna is similar, if not identical to the coupled electromagnetic wave that accompanies the moving charge carriers of a single-wire RF transmission line. This second type of disturbance is the one that I believe you are describing.

Earlier you wondered about the distribution of earth currents from the ground terminals of low frequency radio transmitters. According to Tesla some portion of the earth current associated with a well-grounded LF radio-transmitting antenna does, in fact, propagate to a great distance.

Counsel

"You say radio engineers put too much energy into the radiating part. What, as a matter of fact, according to your conception, is the part of the energy that is received in the receivers in the present system? . . . To illustrate my question, take for instance the energy used at Sayville [Long Island, New York] and the reception of that at Nauen [Germany]. I want to know whether it is your idea that the reception there is due to the earth currents that you have described or to the radiated energy."

Tesla

"It is far more due to the earth currents than to the radiated energy. I believe, indeed, that the radiated energy alone could not possibly produce the effect across the Atlantic. It is simply because they are incidentally sending a current through the globe-which they think is their current-that the receiver is affected. The current produces variations of potential at the earth's surface in Germany; these fluctuations of potential energize the circuit, and by resonance they increase the potential there and operate the receiver. But I do not mean that it is absolutely impossible to use my apparatus and operate with electromagnetic waves across the Atlantic or Pacific. I only say that according to calculations, for instance, which I have made of the Sayville plant, the radiated energy is very small and cannot be operative. I have also calculated the distribution of the charge on the antenna. I am told that the Sayville antenna is without abrupt changes of capacity. It is impossible. There are changes even in a cylindrical antenna; but particularly in that form at Sayville-there are very abrupt changes." [NIKOLA TESLA ON HIS WORK WITH ALTERNATING CURRENTS AND THEIR APPLICATION TO WIRELESS TELEGRAPHY, TELEPHONY AND TRANSMISSION OF POWER, Leland I. Anderson, Editor, Twenty First Century Books, 1992, p.142.]

You suggested that the mode of propagation for both Tesla's system and low frequency radio systems is by means of earth currents and surface charge coupled to a vertical electric field in the Earth-ionosphere cavity and that the main difference between the disturbances is in the configuration of currents and fields close to the transmitter. You also asserted, and quite rightly in my opinion, that the concept of transferring power by means of Schumann electrical oscillations in a concentric spherical shell cavity resonator will not work for reasons including the damping effect of the ionosphere. On the other hand, it has been pointed out that wireless energy transmission based upon this model, is inconsistent with the Tesla type transmitter.

"The conceptual difficulty with this model is that, at the very low frequencies that Tesla said that he employed (1-50 kHz), earth-ionosphere waveguide excitation, now well understood, would seem to be impossible with the either the Colorado Springs or the Long Island apparatus (at least with the apparatus that is visible in the photographs of these facilities)."["Spherical Transmission Lines and Global Propagation, An Analysis of Tesla's Experimentally Determined Propagation Model," K. L. Corum, J. F. Corum, Ph.D., and J. F. X. Daum, Ph.D. 1996, p. 10.]

There is an inconsistency because, as you observed, the Tesla-type transmitter is designed to suppress emissions in the form of electromagnetic radiation.

The physical system made from a conducting earth, an insulating layer of dense air, and a conducting upper atmosphere, the ionosphere, can be modeled in two different ways. The first is the concentric spherical shell cavity resonator model upon which many of your conclusions, so far, have been based. The second is the spherically conducting "single-wire" transmission line model.

In regards to the nature of the disturbances associated with radio transmitters and Tesla coil transmitters, I'm sure we both agree that the configuration of the electromagnetic field associated with a radio antenna changes as it moves out of the near-field zone, as is described by antenna theory. As for the electromagnetic field associated with a Tesla transmitter, I believe the wave remains essentially unchanged as it moves out beyond the near-field zone, through the far-field zone, all the way to the required phase-conjugate or synchronized Tesla receiving transformer.

There are two distinctly different forms of electromagnetic-wave propagation. The first is by means of electromagnetic-radiation or radiowaves, such as emitted by a dipole antenna. The second is by ordinary electrical conduction, such as takes place when a current flows through a transmission-line along with its coupled electromagnetic field.

In my mind there are three types of transmitter-antenna excited propagation modes. The first is by means of a radio wave launched by a dipole antenna in the form of electromagnetic radiation. The second is a combination of the radio wave and the transmission-line coupled electromagnetic wave launched by a grounded monopole antenna, the emissions of which more or less predominate as electromagnetic radiation plus the second component. In addition to space waves, such antennas may also launch the type of surface wave described by Arnold Sommerfeld and Johann Zenneck. This surface wave is different from the Norton Surface Wave. The third is by means of the single ware transmission-line wave launched by a high voltage, pulse-driven, top loaded helical resonator in the form of earth currents and a coupled electromagnetic field. A small radio-wave component might also be present but this can be viewed as an RF energy loss mechanism.

Another point is that a comparison of Tesla's patents covering wireless systems using both closed circuit and open circuit principles reveals the basic transmitting and receiving apparatus are identical. An exception is noted in the two-tower form of earth-resonance transmitter. The systemic differences are in the potential that is required at the active transmitter's elevated terminal, and also in the frequency selection. While the usable spectrum is the same for both types of system, say between 1-30 kHz, a simplified closed circuit Tesla system can operate at any point along the spectrum. A simplified open circuit Tesla system has to operate on some harmonic of the fundamental earth-resonance frequency, reported by Tesla as being 11.786892 kHz.

And now for a little hand waving of my own; in regards to the two types of surface wave associated with grounded radio antennas and Tesla coil transmitters, the Norton Surface Wave is the result of electrical currents induced in the ground by refraction of a portion of the indirect- or reflected-wave component of the ground wave at the earth-atmosphere interface. In contrast, the surface wave associated with a closed circuit Tesla communications transmitter is the result of a current flowing through the earth between two discrete points on Earth's surface. Unlike the Norton Surface Wave excited by a conventional radio transmitter, and while not fully verified by mathematical modeling and subsequent physical validation, I do not believe the spherically conducting single-wire transmission line surface wave will diminish significantly as the distance from the transmitter increases.

Tesla

"It is indispensable to first dispel a few errors under which electricians have labored for years, owing to the tremendous momentum imparted to the scientific mind through the work of Hertz which has hampered independent thought and experiment. To facilitate understanding, attention is called to the annexed diagrams in which Fig. 1 and Fig. 2 represent, respectively, the well known arrangements of circuits in the Hertz-wave system and my own. In the former the transmitting and receiving conductors are separated from the ground through spark gaps, choking coils, and high resistances. This is necessary, as a ground connection greatly reduces the intensity of the radiation by cutting off half of the oscillator and also by increasing the length of the waves from 40 to 100 percent, according to the distribution of capacity and inductance. In the system devised by me a connection to earth, either directly or through a condenser is essential. The receiver, in the first case, is affected only by rays transmitted through the air, conduction being excluded; in the latter instance there is no appreciable radiation and the receiver is energized through the earth while an equivalent electrical displacement occurs in the atmosphere." ["The Disturbing Influence of Solar Radiation on the Wireless Transmission of Energy," Nikola Tesla, Electrical Review and Western Electrician, July 6,1912; http://www.tfcbooks.com/tesla/1912-07-06.htm .]

Best regards,
Gary Peterson

April 9, 2007
Gerry,

For starters, please take a look at the paper titled "Henry Bradford and Nikola Tesla On Wireless Energy Transmission, With Additional Comments by Gary Peterson" filed on my personal website at www.teslaradio.com/pages/tesla.htm .

You wrote:
> [Henry's] description of closed circuit seems to be the same as your electrical conduction (A1). His description of open circuit seems to be different from your earth resonant (A2).

> 1. I'm thinking that the earth resonance (A2) is just a slightly different form of a closed system. Is this correct?

Yes and no, Henry and I both view Tesla's terrestrial resonance system as using the open circuit principle. There is a similarity with the closed circuit system in that the Tesla transmitting and receiving apparatus are identical. See my most recent post to the "Wireless Power Transmission" list for additional details.

> 2. . . . would the standing waves be a result of two waves: one traveling one way around the earth and the other traveling the other way around the earth?

No, the energy travels from the transmitter to the opposite side of the earth from where it bounces back to its point of origin. The reflected wave interacts with the outgoing wave to create the standing wave. Tesla reported the time it takes for a single wave or wave train to complete the round trip as being .08484 seconds. This equates to a fundamental earth resonance frequency of 11.786892 Hz.

BTW, have you read the book NIKOLA TESLA ON HIS WORK WITH ALTERNATING CURRENTS AND THEIR APPLICATION TO WIRELESS TELEGRAPHY, TELEPHONY AND TRANSMISSION OF POWER, Leland I. Anderson, Editor, Twenty First Century Books, 1992?

> 3. . . . how does one extract energy from the earth resonant system?

With a synchronized Tesla receiving transformer, exactly as with a closed circuit system. The only difference is that the transmitter has to transmit on some harmonic of the fundamental earth resonance frequency mentioned above, and at a much higher power level.

> 4. Given that Wardenclyffe was only a single device system and Tesla's measurement found some resonance below 35KHz, would it be fair to say the Wardenclyffe system was an earth resonant system? Would this also be considered a "closed" system?

The published measurement of no less than 1/12 sec. was the result of data collected at Colorado Springs. The Wardenclyffe plant could have been used with either a closed or open circuit type of system.

> 5. In your transmission line analogy, the two conductors are earth and atmosphere?

For the closed circuit system, yes. The "spherically conducting one-wire transmission line" model is used in describing the open circuit system

> 6. As one travels up in the atmosphere, I presume the the troposphere is below the ionosphere. Is this correct?

Yes.

> . . . why not use the ionosphere for the conductor?

It is possible that once the ionized path was established it would extend all the way up to the ionosphere

> what are the effects of making connection with the ionosphere?

It is possible that an electrical discharge could be triggered, but all of this is pure speculation.

> Would precautions need to be done to prevent the UV beam from shorting out the topload to earth?

The UV lamp or laser would probably have to be mounted inside of the cupola and powered by a nearby pneumatically, hydraulically or fuel driven generator.

> 7. Was the Schumann resonance known at the time of Tesla? What is this resonance? Seems like its frequency of 7.8 Hz is close to the number of times an EM wave traveling at the speed of light would travel around the earth in one second. Are they related?

I'm not sure what you mean.

> 8. BTW, where is Wardenclyffe and what was the power that Tesla used?

It's on Long Island. The facility included a coal-fired generating plant.

> 9. Henry's "open" system describes a TC where the capacitance from the elevated terminal induces current into the ground. Seems like the conduction current from the base of the TC into ground and the displacement current from the coil and elevated terminal into ground sort of cancel. The only current remaining in ground is the due to the displacement current from the elevated terminal to the upper atmosphere. Is this correct?

In your search for an answer to this question I suggest you read Tesla's 1919 article titled "The True Wireless," a copy of which is located online at www.tfcbooks.com/tesla/1919-05-00.htm . In particular read the accompanying text to figure 14.

"The elevated terminal charged to a high potential induces an equal and opposite charge in the earth and there are thus Q lines giving an average current I=4Qn which circulates locally and is useless except that it adds to the momentum. A relatively small number of lines q however, go off to great distance and to these corresponds a mean current of ie = 4qn to which is due the action at a distance. The total average current in the antenna is thus Im = 4Qn + 4qn and its intensity is no criterion for the performance. The electric efficiency of the antenna is q/Q+q and this is often a very small fraction."

You could also to get back to your work bench and start building functional Tesla coil transmitters and receiving transformers. Only in this way will you be able to fully comprehend the principles involved in Nikola Tesla's wireless work.

Regards,
Gary

Gerry,

You wrote:
> From what you have said, Tesla proposed two techniques:
> 1. Electrical conduction thru the ground and ionized atmosphere between two points requiring a transmitter and receiver.
> 2. A variation of this technique using earth resonance, requiring only a transmitter. This still uses ground and air conduction but creates standing waves in the atmosphere and presumably ground.

Tesla proposed two slightly different techniques for the transmission of electric energy without wires. Both of them depend upon the fact that the earth, with a resistance to the antipode of less than 1 ohm, is an excellent electrical conductor. ["Spherical Transmission Lines and Global Propagation, An Analysis of Tesla's Experimentally Determined Propagation Model," K. L. Corum, J. F. Corum, Ph.D., and J. F. X. Daum, Ph.D. 1996, p. 4.] The first is called the "Closed Circuit Atmospheric Conduction Method" and involves energy transmission through the earth and the atmosphere between two Tesla coil transmitter-receiver stations. The second is the "Open Circuit Earth Resonance Method," which involves energy transmission through the earth using the spherically conducting "single-wire" surface wave transmission line propagation mode.

In 1932 journalist John J. O'Neill conducted an interview with Tesla in which he talked about the difference between the wireless transmission of electric energy using either closed circuit or open circuit principles.

"I also asked him if he is still at work on the project which he inaugurated in the '90's of transmitting power wirelessly anywhere on earth.He is at work on it, he said, and it could be put into operation. . . . Heat that time announced two principles which could be used in this project. In one the ionizing of the upper air would make it as good a conductor of electricity as a metal. In the other the power would be transmitted by creating "standing waves" in the earth by charging the earth with a giant electrical oscillator that would make the earth vibrate electrically in the same way a bell vibrates mechanically when it is struck with a hammer. "I do not use the plan involving the conductivity of the upper strata of the air," he said, "but I use the conductivity of the earth itself, and in this I need no wires to send electrical energy to any part of the globe."" [Tesla Cosmic Ray Motor May Transmit Power 'Round' Earth," Brooklyn Eagle, July 10,1932.]

> . . . Henry Bradford's description of the open circuit technique seems to be different from yours. . . .

The open circuit technique that Mr. Bradford has been discussing as part of the "Wireless Power Transmission" thread is the "Open Circuit Schumann Cavity Resonance Method." This is energy transmission by means of the concentric spherical shell waveguide consisting of the conducting earth, the insulating layer of dense air and the ionosphere.

> 1. I'm thinking that the earth resonance technique is just a slightly different form of closed system. Is this correct?

While the earth resonance system method uses open circuit principles, a comparison of Tesla's patents covering wireless systems using both closed circuit and open circuit principles reveals the basic transmitting and receiving apparatus are identical. An exception is noted in the two-tower form of earth-resonance transmitter. The systemic differences are in the potential that is required at the active transmitter's elevated terminal, and also in the operating frequency. While the usable base spectrum is about the same for both types of system, say 1-60 kHz for the first and 1-30 kHz for the second, a simplified closed circuit Tesla system can operate at any arbitrarily selected point in this region. With a simplified open circuit Tesla system it is compulsory that it operate on some harmonic of the fundamental earth-resonance frequency, reported by Tesla as being 11.786892Hz. 

[Note: Use of the term "open circuit" in reference to the earth resonance method has been discontinued because it is wholly inaccurate.  Tesla described the World System earth resonance principle in the patent ART OF TRANSMITTING ELECTRICAL ENERGY THROUGH THE NATURAL MEDIUMS, Apr. 17, 1906, Canadian Patent No. 142,352, Aug. 13, 1912 of which these are the associated illustrations: 

Tesla described the World System atmospheric current displacement principle in the patent SYSTEM OF TRANSMISSION OF ELECTRICAL ENERGY, Sept. 2, 1897, U.S. Patent No. 645,576, Mar. 20, 1900 of which this is the associated illustration:

It is upon the basis of Tesla's statements and illustrations such as these demonstrate that there is no difference in the basic apparatus, and there are not two different systems, one "open" and the other "closed." There is only one system and it can be operated in either a closed circuit mode or in one that is closed, but not "in the ordinary acceptance of the term." The whole point of this discussion is to find out exactly what these words truly mean.] 

> 2. . . . would the standing waves be a result of two waves: one traveling one way around the earth and the other traveling the other way around the earth?

No, the transmitted energy travels to the opposite side of the earth and then reflected back to its point of origin. The reflected wave interacts with the outgoing wave to create the standing wave. Tesla reported the time that it takes for a single wave or wave train to complete the round trip is.08484 seconds. This equates to a fundamental earth resonance frequency of 11.786892 Hz.

> 3. . . . how does one extract energy from the earth resonant system?

Electrical energy can be extracted from the terrestrial transmission line using a synchronized Tesla receiving transformer, exactly as with a closed circuit system. The only difference, as mentioned above, is that the transmitter has to transmit on some harmonic of the fundamental earth resonance frequency and at a much higher power level.

> 4. Given that Wardenclyffe was only a single device system and Tesla's measurement found some resonance below 35KHz, would it be fair to say the Wardenclyffe system was an earth resonant system? Would this also be considered a "closed" system?

The published measurement of .08484 sec. was the result of data collected at Colorado Springs. It appears the Wardenclyffe transmitter-receiver station would have allowed operation using both closed and open circuit principles.

> 5. In your transmission line analogy, the two conductors are earth and atmosphere?

For the closed circuit system, yes. For the open circuit system, the "spherically conducting one-wire transmission line" model is used.

> 6. As one travels up in the atmosphere, the troposphere is below the ionosphere, so why not use the ionosphere for the conductor?

It is possible that once the ionized path was established through the troposphere it would extend all the way up to the ionosphere

> what are the effects of making connection with the ionosphere?

It is possible that an electrical discharge would be triggered, but of course all of this is pure speculation.

> Would precautions be needed to prevent the UV beam from shorting but the topload to earth?

The UV lamp or laser might have to be positioned inside the cupola and powered by a pneumatic, hydraulic or fuel driven generator also located inside the elevated terminal.

> 7. Was the Schumann resonance known at the time of Tesla? What is this resonance?

Physicist Winfried Otto Schumann mathematically predicted the Schumann resonance phenomenon in 1952. It is a set of spectrum peaks in the extremely low frequency (ELF) portion of the Earth's electromagnetic field spectrum. Schumann resonances (SR) are global electromagnetic resonances, excited by lightning discharges in the cavity formed by the Earth surface and the ionosphere.

Schumann resonance occurs because the space between the surface of the Earth and the conductive ionosphere acts as a waveguide. The limited dimensions of the Earth cause this waveguide to act as a resonant cavity for electromagnetic waves in the ELF band. The cavity is naturally excited by energy from lightning strikes. Schumann resonances are observed in the power spectra of the natural electromagnetic background noise, as separate peaks at extremely low frequencies (ELF) around 8, 14, 20, 26 and 32 Hz.

> . . . Seems like its frequency of 7.8 Hz is close to the number of times an EM wave traveling at the speed of light would travel around the earth in one second. Are they related?

Yes, the fundamental mode of the Schumann Resonance is a standing wave in the Earth-ionosphere cavity with a wavelength equal to the circumference of the Earth. As you have noted, this lowest-frequency (and highest-intensity) mode of the Schumann resonance occurs at a frequency of approximately 7.8Hz. The ninth overtone lies at approximately 60 Hz and thus the cavity is also driven by the North American power grid. Detectable overtones extend upwards into the kilohertz range. [ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Schumann_resonance .]

> 8. BTW, where is Wardenclyffe and what was the power that Tesla used?

The 94-foot square red brick building that housed much of the equipment of Tesla's prototype World System transmitting-receiving station is located inthe town of Shoreham, New York on Eastern Long Island. In its heyday, the facility included a coal-fired generating plant consisting of two Babcock &Wilcox boilers, a Westinghouse engine connected to a 25-kilowatt double current generator, and a larger Westinghouse auto compound engine along with a Westinghouse 200 kilowatt alternating current generator.

> 9. Henry's "open" system describes a TC where the capacitance from the elevated terminal induces current into the ground. Seems like the conduction current from the base of the TC into ground and the displacement current from the coil and elevated terminal into ground sorta cancel. The only current remaining in ground is the due to the displacement current from the elevated terminal to the upper atmosphere. Is this correct?

Not exactly, Mr. Bradford has been talking about the distribution of the ground current associated with modern grounded low frequency radio transmitter antennas, and comparing this current distribution with the ground-current distribution of open circuit Tesla coil transmitters.

The behavior of the currents and fields associated with the two launching structures is similar in that displacement current flows between the aerial and ground plane. There is a difference in that the high radiation resistance of the radio antenna circuit results in the conversion of the antenna current into electromagnetic radiation, while because of the low radiation resistance of the Tesla transmitter antenna circuit, conversion of electrical current into electromagnetic radiation does not take place. In the latter case the energy remains in the form of an electrical current and its coupled electromagnetic field flowing through the launching structure and the ground along with "an equivalent electrical displacement" in the surrounding air. A portion of this current circulates locally and helps to maintain the oscillations in the transmitting element. The remainder of the current apparently spreads out over a large circular area the radius of which can greatly exceed a quarter wavelength.

In addition, the oscillating ground current apparently creates a local disturbance in the earth's charge that manifests itself as a periodic annular variation in the density of the background electric field. This disturbance propagates away from the transmitter and diminishes in intensity as the distance from the transmitter increases. According to Tesla, a 75-kilowatt transmitter would produce a field distortion strong enough to propagate all the way to the antipode and be reflected back to its point of origin. The transmission of electrical energy across the entire globe and its reflection all the way back to its source is the basis of Tesla's open circuit earth resonance method.

Regards,
Gary

Hi Malcolm,

You wrote:
> I think a couple of things are worth mentioning: firstly, "In one the ionizing of the upper air would make it as good a conductor of electricity as a metal." appears to me to be pure hand waving without any substantiation.

As you know, the higher the voltage that is used in sending energy over a conventional electrical power transmission line, the greater is its efficiency. This is due to the relationship between voltage and current as they relate to power dissipation. For example, to power a hypothetical 100-watt load, the current can be one ampere at 100 volts, 10 amperes at 10 volts or 100 amperes at 1 volt, or any number of similar combinations. Ordinary conductors have a finite resistance. The voltage drop (E) across any resistance (R) is given by Ohm's law, E = I/R. For any given load, with a constant transmission-line resistance, by lowering the current (I) that flows through the transmission line, the voltage drop or transmission-line loss is reduced

The above statements about transmission-line loss appear true in regards to the plasma transmission line that runs between the two elevated terminals as well. Tesla designed his transmitter with the expressed purpose of developing the greatest possible potential on the elevated terminal in order to minimize the loss due to the plasma transmission-line resistance

". . . by such means as have been described practically any potential that is desired may be obtained, the currents through the air strata may be rendered very small, whereby the loss in the transmission may be reduced. [SYSTEM OF TRANSMISSION OF ELECTRICAL ENERGY, Sept. 2, 1897, U.S. Patent No. 645,576, Mar. 20, 1900]

A little while back Bill Beaty explained to me why a plasma transmission could operate with minimal losses. The influence of resistance on transmission line efficiency depends upon the impedance of the source and the load. For example, if a power supply puts out one watt, but puts it out at one volt and one amp, then the output impedance of the source is one ohm. (R = E/I) The transmission line had better have much less resistance than one ohm (say 0.1 ohm or smaller) otherwise a significant portion of the transmitted energy will go into heating of the wire. In other words, the one-volt, one-amp source thinks the division between conductor and insulator is centered at the value of one ohm. A 100-ohm leakage path is nearly an insulator, since it dissipates only 1% of the output wattage. Now suppose the power supply puts out one watt at one kilovolt and one milliamp. In that case the source impedance is one megohm, and the connecting wires had better be 100K or less in resistance. In this case a 10K resistor is a conductor of negligible resistance, and a one-megohm leakage path will eat up half of the power supply's output.

Applying this relationship to an atmospheric conduction wireless energy transmission system, if the transmitter puts out one megawatt at one mega volt and one amp, then 100K is a fairly good conductor, and insulators have to measure 10 mega ohms or better. In this case, if you could create a vertical plasma transmission line, and if the plasma filament measured 10 kilo-ohms, it would only consume 1% of the transmitter's power output. If the potential of transmitter's elevated terminal is raised to 100 mega volts at 10 mA (this is still 1 megawatt), then the supply impedance is 10,000 mega ohms, and the plasma transmission line will act as a negligible series resistance even if its resistance is 100 mega ohms.

> In the CS Notes there is a diagram of a hollow glass coil which was proposed as for use as an inductor (using ionized gas) in a resonant circuit. Interestingly, Tesla did not incorporate that innovation in any of his major coils that I am aware of which also begs the question.

Tesla did, however, take advantage of the fact that with a sufficiently high potential on the elevated terminal of a grounded high voltage electrical oscillator the properties of the air in the vicinity of the apparatus can be modified, changing it from an insulator to a conductor.

"Up to the end of 1896, I had been developing the wireless system along the lines set forth in my lecture which is in the Martin book, particularly in the chapter on Electrical Resonance, pages 340-349. . . . But in experimenting with these high potential discharges which I was always producing, I discovered a wonderful thing. I found, namely, that the air, which had been behaving before like an insulator, suddenly became like a conductor; that is, when subjected to these great electrical stresses, it broke down and I obtained discharges which were not accountable for by the theory that the air was an insulator. When I calculated the effects, I concluded that this must be due to the potential gradient at a distance from the electrified body, and subsequently I came to the conviction that it would be ultimately possible, without any elevated antenna-with very small elevation-to break down the upper stratum of the air and transmit the current by conduction.

"Having discovered that, I established conditions under which I might operate in putting up a practical commercial plant. When the matter came up in the patents before the Examiner, I arranged this experiment for him in my Houston Street laboratory.

"I took a tube 50 feet long, in which I established conditions such as would exist in the atmosphere at a height of about 4 1/2 miles, a height which could be reached in a commercial enterprise. . . . Then, on the basis of the results I had already obtained, I established those conditions, practically, in my laboratory. I used that coil which is shown in my patent application of September 2, 1897 (Patent No. 645,576 of March 20, 1900), the primary as described, the receiving circuit, and lamps in the secondary transforming circuit, exactly as illustrated there. And when I turned on the current, I showed that through a stratum of air at a pressure of 135 millimeters, when my four circuits were tuned, several incandescent lamps were lighted. [NIKOLA TESLA ON HIS WORK WITH ALTERNATING CURRENTS AND THEIR APPLICATION TO WIRELESS TELEGRAPHY, TELEPHONY AND TRANSMISSION OF POWER, pp. 125-127]

Tesla described the ionization process, as observed at the Colorado Springs Experimental Station, in the patent "System of Transmission of Electrical Energy."

". . . a conductor or terminal, to which impulses such as those here considered are supplied, but which is otherwise insulated in space and is remote from any conducting-bodies, is surrounded by a luminous flame-like brush or discharge often covering many hundreds or even as much as several thousands of square feet of surface, this striking phenomenon clearly attesting the high degree of conductivity which the atmosphere attains under the influence of the immense electrical stresses to which it is subjected. This influence is however, not confined to that portion of the atmosphere which is discernible by the eye as luminous and which, as has been the case in some instances actually observed, may fill the space within a spherical or cylindrical envelop of a diameter of sixty feet or more, but reaches out to far remote regions, the insulating qualities of the air being, as I have ascertained, still sensibly impaired at a distance many hundred times that through which the luminous discharge projects from the terminal and in all probability much farther. The distance extends with the increase of the electromotive force of the impulses, with the diminution of the density of the atmosphere, with the elevation of the active terminal above the ground, and also, apparently, in slight measure, with the degree of moisture contained in the air. I have likewise observed that this region of decidedly-noticeable influence continuously enlarges as time goes on, and the discharge is allowed to pass not unlike a conflagration which slowly spreads, this being possibly due to the gradual electrification or ionization of the air or to the formation of less insulating gaseous compounds. It is, furthermore, a fact that such discharges of extreme tensions, approximating those of lightning, manifest a marked tendency to pass upward away from the ground, which may be due to electrostatic repulsion, or possibly to slight heating and consequent rising of the electrified or ionized air. These latter observations make it appear probable that a discharge of this character allowed to escape into the atmosphere from a terminal maintained at a great height will gradually leak through and establish a good conducting-path to more elevated and better conducting air strata, a process which possibly takes place in silent lightning discharges frequently witnessed on hot and sultry days. It will be apparent to what an extent the conductivity imparted to the air is enhanced by the increase of the electromotive force of the impulses when it is stated that in some instances the area covered by the flame discharge mentioned was enlarged more than sixfold by an augmentation of the electrical pressure, amounting scarcely to more than fifty per cent. As to the influence of rarefaction upon the electric conductivity imparted to the gases it is noteworthy that, whereas the atmospheric or other gases begin ordinarily to manifest this quality at something like seventy-five millimeters barometric pressure with the impulses of excessive electromotive force to which I have referred, the conductivity, as already pointed out, begins even at normal pressure and continuously increases with the degree of tenuity of the gas, so that at, say, one hundred and thirty millimeters pressure, when the gases are known to be still nearly perfect insulators for ordinary electromotive forces, they behave toward electromotive impulses of several millions of volts, like excellent conductors, as though they were rarefied to a much higher degree. . . . [SYSTEM OF TRANSMISSION OF ELECTRICAL ENERGY, Sept. 2, 1897, U.S. Patent No. 645,576, Mar. 20, 1900]

>>> 3. . . . how does one extract energy from the earth resonant system?

>> Electrical energy can be extracted from the terrestrial transmission line using a synchronized Tesla receiving transformer, exactly as with a closed circuit system. . . .

> Is any mention made of location restrictions on the placement of receivers?

Yes,

"The presence of the stationery waves may be detected in many ways. For instance, a circuit may be connected directly or inductively to the ground and to an elevated terminal and tuned to respond more effectively to the oscillations. Another way is to connect a tuned circuit to the ground at two points lying more or less in a meridian and passing through the pole E' [the transmitter's ground connection] or, generally stated, to any two points of the different potential. . . .

"The plates P and P' through which the electrical energy is conveyed to the [receiver] may be at a considerable distance from each other in the ground or one in the ground and the other in the air, preferably at some height. If but one plate is connected to the earth and the other maintained at an elevation, the location of the apparatus must be determined with reference to the position of the stationery waves established by the generator, the effect evidently being greatest a maximum and zero at a nodal region. On the other hand, if both plates be connected to earth the points of connection must be selected with reference to the difference of potential which it is desired to secure, the strongest affect being of course obtained when the plates are at a distance equal to half the wavelength." [ART OF TRANSMITTING ELECTRICAL ENERGY THROUGH THE NATURAL MEDIUMS, May 16, 1900, U.S. Patent No. 787,412, Apr. 18, 1905]

>> The UV lamp or laser might have to be positioned inside the cupola and powered by a pneumatic, hydraulic or fuel driven generator also located inside the elevated terminal.

> .... which presumably, at a receiving station if the system was efficient could be powered by received energy once the connection had been made?

In addition to the Wardenclyffe prototype transmitting-receiving station a second station was to have been built in England. Both of these would have been essentially identical in construction. The foreclosure inventory of equipment at the Long Island plant includes a large Westinghouse auto compound engine and also a 200-kilowatt alternating current generator, which roughly indicates the amount of power that Tesla would have had at his disposal if construction had been completed. Presumably the second plant would have been outfitted with a 200 kW generator as well.

To answer your question, it seems Tesla's plan was to install big plants in the vicinity of the world's major cities and even bigger plants at energy-rich locations such as Niagara Falls. If it actually worked, the system would support both wireless communications and industrial power transmission, and be linked to hard-wired systems-certainly phone systems, and probably power distribution systems as well. He said small consumers in isolated areas would be able to tap into the system and receive energy for lighting, heating, etc.

>> . . . According to Tesla, a 75 kilowatt transmitter would produce a field distortion strong enough to propagate all the way to the antipode and be reflected back to its point of origin. The transmission of electrical energy across the entire globe and its reflection all the way back to its source is the basis of Tesla's open circuit earth resonance method.

> That seems to imply that almost 75kW is lost in the process. Correct?

Yes, once again according to Tesla,

"Theoretically, it does not take much effort to maintain the earth in electrical vibration. I have, in fact, worked out a plant of 10,000 horse-power which would operate with no bigger loss than 1 percent of the whole power applied; that is, with the exception of the frictional energy that is consumed in the rotation of the engines and the heating of the conductors, I would not lose more than 1 percent. In other words, if I have a 10,000 horsepower plant, it would take only 100 horsepower to keep the earth vibrating so long as there is no energy taken out at any other place." [NIKOLA TESLA ON HIS WORK WITH ALTERNATING CURRENTS AND THEIR APPLICATION TO WIRELESS TELEGRAPHY, TELEPHONY AND TRANSMISSION OF POWER, p. 140.]

And,

"Since a single plant of but one hundred horse-power [about 75 kilowatts] can operate hundreds of millions of instruments, the system will have a virtually infinite working capacity, and it must needs immensely facilitate and cheapen the transmission of intelligence." ["The Transmission of Electrical Energy Without Wires," Electrical World, March 5, 1904.]

Assuming it takes 75 kW to resonate the earth, a 75,750-watt system would be capable of operating at 1% efficiency. The remaining 99% of the transmitted energy would be consumed by mechanisms such as the production of eddy currents in the earth with subsequent conversion to heat, acoustic energy, etc. and the production of electromagnetic radiation by the earth resonance transmitter itself. In other words, 75 kW will be needed to compensate for the 75 kW that is either absorbed by the environment or lost in the form of electromagnetic radiation. At an idle the transmitter will consume fully 75 kW simply to maintain earth resonance. Add a single power receiver with a 750-watt load attached to it or 100 million communications receivers each consuming .075 milliwatts and the system will be operating at maximum capacity.

> What actual progress if any have the Corums et al made toward demonstrating the viability of any of the proposed modes of transmission since 2000?

I'll get back to you in a few days with my answer.

Regards,
Gary

Gerry,

Earlier you had asked:
>> 4. Given that Wardenclyffe was only a single device system and Tesla's measurement found some resonance below 35KHz, would it be fair to say the Wardenclyffe system was an earth resonant system?

To which I responded in part:
>> The published measurement of .08484 sec. was the result of data collected at Colorado Springs. . . .

The measured value that Tesla published for the fundamental earth resonance frequency is actually 12 Hz. His exact words were "the wave or wave-train should continue for a certain interval of time, which I have estimated to be not less then one-twelfth or probably 0.08484 of a second and which is taken in passing to and returning from the region diametrically opposite the pole. . . ." [ART OF TRANSMITTING ELECTRICAL ENERGY THROUGH THE NATURAL MEDIUMS, May 16, 1900, U.S. Patent No. 787,412, Apr. 18, 1905]. A round trip time of 1/12 sec. corresponds to 12 Hz.

According to statements made by Tesla's attorneys in an official document on file at the U.S. Patent Office pertaining to this patent the "one-twelfth of a second" figure is, "in agreement with his numerous experimental observations. . . . We would point out that the specification does not deal with theories, but with facts which applicant has experimentally observed and demonstrated again and again, and in the commercial exploitation of which he is engaged" ["Spherical Transmission Lines and Global Propagation, An Analysis of Tesla's Experimentally Determined Propagation Model," K. L. Corum, J. F. Corum, Ph.D., and J. F. X. Daum, Ph.D. 1996, p. 3n]. The .08484 sec. figure is based upon a numerical calculation of the same thing, that is to say the time interval for an electrical current from a Tesla coil RF transmitter to travel twice the earth's diameter at the speed of light. The calculated time interval for an electromagnetic wave to travel the earth's circumference when moving at the speed of light is 0.1335 sec., and this corresponds to a frequency of 7.49 Hz [THE TESLA EXPERIMENT Lightning & Earth Electrical Resonance : A Commentary on 1983 Research and Test Results, Charles Yost, Tesla Book Company]. Tesla's words, "estimated to be not less then one-twelfth" of a second are consistent with the taking of time measurements with a stroboscopic instrument such as he is known to have used.

Regards,
Gary 

Mike,

You wrote:
> At 12 Hz, which is what I was attempting to address, would seem to be the wrong frequency to attempt transmission.

I think this is a good time for an interim summary statement.

Over 100 years ago Tesla proposed a system for the wireless transmission of electrical energy on a global scale. The anticipated feasibility of the system was based upon the direct observation of high voltage phenomena and subsequent mathematical modeling, the results of which were in agreement with empirical data collected using a full size experimental world system transmitter constructed in Colorado Springs. Achievability was also suggested because the point-to-point resistance between antipodes of the whole earth seemed to be very low. It can be analytically shown that the probable whole earth resistance is less than 1 ohm. ["Spherical Transmission Lines and Global Propagation, An Analysis of Tesla's Experimentally Determined Propagation Model," K. L. Corum, J. F. Corum, Ph.D., and J. F. X. Daum, Ph.D. 1996, pp. 3-5].

The system was to have incorporated one of two fundamental principles. The first of these principles involves the transmission of current through a closed electrical circuit consisting of 1) a high-current path comprised of the earth and 2) a high-voltage path comprised of the atmosphere between two Tesla-type wireless stations. The electrical displacement through the atmospheric path can be either by means of electrostatic induction, true electrical conduction, or a combination of these, depending upon how energetic the two oscillators are, this being a contributing factor as to whether the intervening air between the stations exists in an insulating or a conducting state.

The second principle that might be applied to such a system is terrestrial resonance. Evaluation of any propagation mode that involves terrestrial resonance requires an analysis of the manner in which the transmitted energy passes through or around the earth. For this purpose the earth is considered to be a smooth, solid, perfectly conducting sphere of radius R = 6,363,000 meters.

Suppose that a signal is injected at the North Pole and extracted at the South Pole. Two possible descriptions for propagation time arise:

1. The electricity might propagate around the circumference in the form of a wave and be received at the antipode after a propagation delay equal to the arc length divided by the speed of light:

Tsub1 = pi R / c = 0.06663 seconds. 
(1)

Around the world propagation would take 0.13327 seconds, the reciprocal of which is 7.50 Hz.

2. The electricity might propagate through the sphere as though it were a conducting linear wire, or give the effective appearance of doing so, and be received at the antipode after a delay of,

Tsub2 = 2 R / c = 0.04242 seconds. 
(2)

Travel to the antipode and reflection back again would take 0.8484 seconds, the reciprocal of which is 11.787 Hz. ["Spherical Transmission Lines and Global Propagation, An Analysis of Tesla's Experimentally Determined Propagation Model," K. L. Corum, J. F. Corum, Ph.D., and J. F. X. Daum, Ph.D. 1996, p. 6].

Both of these descriptions appear to relate to actual energy-propagation phenomena. These are the Schumann resonances with a measured fundamental tone in the vicinity of 7.8 Hz, and resonances spoken about by Tesla with a measured fundamental tone no greater than 12 Hz.

Whether description #1 or description #2 is applicable in any particular case appears to depend upon the character of the disturbance and how it is initiated. ["Spherical Transmission Lines and Global Propagation, An Analysis of Tesla's Experimentally Determined Propagation Model," K. L. Corum, J. F. Corum, Ph.D., and J. F. X. Daum, Ph.D. 1996, p. 6].

Regards,
Gary

Gerry,

You wrote:
> OK, I think the essence of a closed and open system are starting to sink in. I have read the first part of "Nikola Tesla On Wireless Energy Transmission" ( www.teslaradio.com/pages/tesla.htm ) . . . and will focus my summary and questions on this part

I agree with this plan.

> 1. It seems that a "closed" system relies on conduction thru both the earth and the atmosphere whereas an "open" system only relies on conduction thru the earth. Would this be a good operating definition?

The World System incorporates one of two fundamental principles, and depends upon the fact that the point-to-point resistance between antipodes of the earth is considerably less than 1 ohm. ["Spherical Transmission Lines and Global Propagation, An Analysis of Tesla's Experimentally Determined Propagation Model," K. L. Corum, J. F. Corum, Ph.D., and J. F. X. Daum, Ph.D. 1996, pp. 3-5].

My definition of the first principle is the transmission of current through a closed electrical circuit consisting of 1) a high-current path comprised of the earth and 2) a high-voltage path comprised of the atmosphere between two Tesla-type wireless stations. The electrical displacement through the atmospheric path can be either by means of electrostatic induction, true electrical conduction, or a combination of these two forms of electrical current, depending upon how energetic the two oscillators are, this being the main contributing factor as to whether the intervening air between the stations exists in an insulating or a conducting state.

A definition of the second principle for wireless energy transmission in accordance with Tesla's rules and that receives majority consensus is still being formulated. This is what we know so far:

1) The second principle involves at least one and possibly two terrestrial 
resonance modes.

2) The transmitting element or launching structure consists of a high 
voltage, pulse-driven, top loaded helical resonator.

3) The transmitted energy propagates through the earth in the form of an electrical current and a coupled electromagnetic field. The current passes through the earth as if it was a conducting linear wire, or it gives the effective appearance of doing so, and reaches the antipode after a calculated delay of, 0.04242 seconds

4) Electromagnetic radiation in the form of radio space waves can be made to propagate through the concentric spherical shell waveguide consisting of the conducting earth, the insulating layer of dense air and the ionosphere. Lightning-induced standing waves exist within this wave-guide as a result of constructive interference. The frequency of these standing waves is related to the circumference of the earth. A transmitted Extremely Low Frequency radio wave of sufficient power passes halfway around the earth and reaches the antipode after a calculated delay of 0.13327 seconds.

> 2. On page 2 top paragraph (I believe your comments), it is stated: "For any given power level, the I2R losses in the plasma transmission line would be proportional to the value of the resistance (R) of the ionized path between the two stations, and inversely proportional to the amount of current (I) flowing along this path. The voltage drop (E) across R is given by Ohm's law, E=I/R. There is an inverse relationship between voltage and current, so for any given load, increasing the transmission line voltage would reduce the current...."
>
> I think you meant Ohm's law, E=IR.

Yes, thank you for correcting that mistake.

> The "inversely proportional to the amount of current (I) flowing along this path." threw me, but I think you are referring to the negative resistance region of the plasma. In other words, once conduction begins, the plasma resistance is high for low currents and low for high currents.

I was not considering a possible negative-resistance effect.

> I also think you are meaning that the I2R loses in the plasma represent a smaller portion of the total power sent (higher efficiency) at higher current levels than with lower current levels.

In regards to a plasma transmission line-for a specific load and a constant transmission-line resistance-the higher the current level the higher the existing I square R losses. Lowering the current that is pushed through the transmission line by increasing the line voltage reduces the voltage drop. This results in higher transmission line efficiency. The same principle applies to wired power distribution systems. This is why very high voltages are used on long-distance electrical transmission lines. Tesla designed his wireless transmitter with the expressed purpose of developing the greatest possible potential on the elevated terminal in order to minimize the loss due to the plasma transmission-line resistance.

". . . by such means as have been described practically any potential that is desired may be obtained, the currents through the air strata may be rendered very small, whereby the loss in the transmission may be reduced." [SYSTEM OF TRANSMISSION OF ELECTRICAL ENERGY, Sept. 2, 1897, U.S. Patent No. 645,576, Mar. 20, 1900]

> a. Do we know how much potential is required to break down the troposphere between a transmitter and receiver at say 1000 miles?

This is a nice little project for the mathematicians. Here is Tesla's generalization:

"As to the influence of rarefaction upon the electric conductivity imparted to the gases it is noteworthy that, whereas the atmospheric or other gases begin ordinarily to manifest this quality at something like seventy-five millimeters barometric pressure with the impulses of excessive electromotive force to which I have referred, the conductivity, as already pointed out, begins even at normal pressure and continuously increases with the degree of tenuity of the gas, so that at, say, one hundred and thirty millimeters pressure, when the gases are known to be still nearly perfect insulators for ordinary electromotive forces, they behave toward electromotive impulses of several millions of volts, like excellent conductors, as though they were rarefied to a much higher degree." [SYSTEM OF TRANSMISSION OF ELECTRICAL ENERGY, Sept. 2, 1897, U.S. Patent No. 645,576, Mar. 20, 1900.]

Tesla used an artificial atmospheric pressure of 135 mm Hg in his 50-foot long evacuated glass tube demonstration. This is equivalent to the pressure found at an elevation of 4 1/2 miles.

> Is time required for the ionized corona discharge to drift between the two stations to eventually result in conduction?

Yes, being an electro-chemical reaction the process of ionization is far from instantaneous. It can be compared to the progression of a flame through a volume containing a mixture of oxygen and a combustible gas.

> b. Do we know what the "optimum" conductivity of the plasma will be once conduction begins?
> How much current is required to reach this optimum conductivity?

Finding answers to these questions is another fun project for whoever decides to pursue them. Transmission through rarified air as described by Tesla:

"I took a tube 50 feet long, in which I established conditions such as would exist in the atmosphere at a height of about 4 1/2 miles, a height which could be reached in a commercial enterprise. . . . Then, on the basis of the results I had already obtained, I established those conditions, practically, in my laboratory. I used that coil which is shown in my patent application of September 2, 1897 (Patent No. 645,576 of March 20, 1900), the primary as described, the receiving circuit, and lamps in the secondary transforming circuit, exactly as illustrated there. And when I turned on the current, I showed that through a stratum of air at a pressure of 135 millimeters, when my four circuits were tuned, several incandescent lamps were lighted."

> c. Once the connection is made from the elevated terminal to the troposphere via a UV laser lets say, it seems like there could be a significant resistance to "spread out" from this point in the troposphere. Any ideas on what this portion of the plasma resistance is.

This is another one for the mathematicians and plasma physicists.

> 3. The fundamental frequency of the "earth resonance" is higher than the Schumann resonance where the frequency of the Schumann resonance is given by:
>
> f = (c / 2*pi*a) * sqrt [n(n+1)]
>
> where a is the radius of earth and n is a mode of resonance of the cavity formed by the space between the earth and the ionosphere.
>
> In the Schumann case, the frequency is based on the circumference of the earth. In the "earth resonance" case, the current wave is going straight thru the earth to the other side [thence] a round trip. . . .

Yes, this is correct. And, the frequency in the earth resonance case is based upon the diameter of the earth.

> 4. Induced currents into earth: I'm still having some problems with this and will use an ideal case to describe my thinking.
>
> Let's assume a perfect conducting sphere the size of earth. No atmosphere and hence no ionosphere. We levitate a terminal above the surface of this sphere. We charge up this terminal to a positive voltage by moving some free electrons from the terminal to the sphere. The elevated terminal will now have a positive net charge and sphere will have an equally negative net charge. Normally the sphere will have its free electrons evenly distributed thru out the volume of the sphere, as there is no net charge on the sphere. Once a net negative charge is put onto the sphere by the charging of the terminal, the free electrons will redistribute until the excess electrons are under the terminal. The redistributing will be such that there will be no E field within the conducting sphere.
>
> Now, lets put an AC voltage generator connected between the sphere surface and the elevated terminal. There will be an AC conducting current flowing thru the generator and into the ground. The so-called displacement current was invented to allow circuit theory (Norton's current law) to still work. If we enclose the elevated terminal, the generator, and the portion of the sphere that the generator is connected to with an imaginary boundary, all the currents thru this boundary must add up to zero. . . .

This part of your model is problematic for me in that I view the generator as being connected to the entire sphere rather than a portion of it. Creating a realistic model demands the collection of empirical data related to the performance of functioning Tesla coil transmitters along with active and passive Tesla receiving transformers. This will require the construction and operation of full-size Tesla transmitting and receiving apparatus, as described in his patents and elsewhere.

> BTW, I do like the proposed experiment using a radio receiver with a 1/2 wave balanced dipole antenna to isolate it from earth currents as a way of measuring the locality of the earth induced currents.

The experimental protocol that involves the use of dipole antennae to which you are referring is not intended as a way of measuring the locality of the earth induced currents. My rational behind the use of ungrounded radio antennae is because of their relative immunity to the influence of the earth current and coupled fields associated with the operation of active Tesla coil transmitting and receiving apparatus.

One of the basic tenets behind the operation of Tesla transmitting and receiving apparatus is that radio waves are not involved with the transfer of electrical energy between the two stations. I believe this can be shown to be the case with a radio receiver that is tunable to the Tesla coil transmitter's operating frequency, and which is sensitive only to radio waves. The radio receiver's antenna would be configured in such a way so that would interact only with radio waves and not with the non-radiating emissions of the Tesla coil transmitter. Grounded monopole and low-to-the-ground counterpoise radio antennas would not be used. Appropriate antennas for this purpose are the vertical 1/2-wave dipole antenna, with or without loading coils and suspended high above the ground to minimize capacitive coupling to the earth, the tuned air loop antenna, or the tuned ferrite loop-stick antenna.

The basic assumptions behind this experiment are as follows:

1) The energy associated with an operating Tesla coil transmitter of proper design is predominantly non-radiating with negligible emissions existing in the form of radio waves.

2) Radio receivers connected to non-grounded or non-counterpoise radio antennas are more sensitive, to a degree yet to be determined, to radio waves than they are to the non-radiating electromagnetic field energy associated with an operating Tesla coil transmitter. Furthermore, non-grounded radio antennas can be constructed, the performance of which approach that of the ideal radio antenna.

3) Grounded Tesla receiving transformers are capable of collecting the forms of electrical energy associated with both radio-wave transmitters and Tesla coil transmitters. Furthermore, it is likely that radio receivers with grounded tuned antennas are also capable of collecting the predominant form of electrical energy associated with an operating Tesla coil transmitter.

It follows from this, if the energy from an operating Tesla coil transmitter is well collected by a Tesla receiving transformer, but is not well collected by a radio receiver connected to non-grounded or non-counterpoise radio antenna, while at the same time the radio receiver does well collect energy from a radio-wave transmitter connected to non-grounded, non-counterpoise radio antenna, all of these operating at the same frequency, then the electrical energy from the Tesla coil transmitter that is well collected by the Tesla receiving transformer is not predominantly in the form of radio waves.

Has this been done?

It is being done. My work has passed beyond the preliminary stages and I am preparing to take some more precise measurements with improved apparatus.

Operating a 20-watt solid-state Tesla coil transmitter at 108 kHz a number of years ago, noise was all that I could hear with a grounded LF receiver at 1,000 meters. Even at 60 meters the radio receiver did not detect the Tesla coil transmitter. The radio receiver I've been using is a Realistic DX-302 Quartz-Synthesized Communications Receiver with a preselector. When about 60 meters from the transmitter, I had a 20-foot piece of wire for an antenna. I heard nothing but static noise at that distance.

I set up a well-grounded helical-resonator receiving element at 1,000 meters, and was able to detect the emissions (I saw an S5 on its meter) of the continuous-wave Tesla-coil transmitter with the same communications receiver, its antenna being brought close to the wire connecting the top turn of the resonator and the elevated terminal. You can see some photos of my transmitting and receiving apparatus at http://www.teslaradio.com/pages/sstc-a.htm .

I am preparing to be more aggressive with the "radio-wave" receiving antenna design. 108 kHz is about 2,800 meters, so a half-wave dipole antenna would be nearly 4,600 feet from end to end. This not being practical, I plan to use a vertical dipole with loading coils. Another problem with the S5 reception at about 1,000 meters is the receiving transformer was too close to the Tesla coil transmitter. In my estimation the distance from the transmitter should be 15 kilometers or more for my Tesla-coil transmission / reception demonstrations to be meaningful. A further problem is the 108 kHz operating frequency. Moving to 75 kHz will be a step in the right direction, while at the same time keeping the transmitter's helical resonator and topload dimensions manageable. A 25 kHz transmitter-receiver pair is my ultimate goal.

Regards,
Gary

Gavin,

You asked:
With the RF receiver did you set its receiving mode to CW or SSB?

As I mention at www.teslaradio.com/pages/sstc-a.htm , the pulse generator that I used at the time to switch the transmitter driver circuitry has a temperature-related frequency stability problem. Because of this instability the experimental transmitter's primary vibrations would slow down and it would go out of tune with the transmitting element as the temperature increased in the room in which the pulse generator was installed. As a day progressed through the afternoon the temperature would fall and the primary frequency would rise bringing it momentarily back in tune with the transmitting element.

The day of my field observations at 1 km, July 27, 2002, I had the good fortune to observe one of these crossings as the primary frequency swept through the Tesla coil transmitter frequency. The receiver was set in the AM receiving mode. The receiver's meter was displaying S3 and the sound from the loudspeaker was of the nature that one hears when receiving a continuous-wave signal in AM mode; I would tune away and hear static then tune back to the signal and the static level would drop, but not go completely away. At the time of the center-frequency crossing the signal strength momentarily rose from S3 to S5 and the background static went away. After that the signal dropped back to S3 and the background static returned.

Gary

Gerry,

You wrote:
> . . . So, if the voltage at the load was raised and the load resistance adjusted so it saw a constant power, then the required current in the plasma would drop and the corresponding loss would decrease.

Exactly right!

> 4. Induced currents into earth: I'm still having some problems with this. . . .

There are two basic types of wireless transmitter: 1) the radio wave or Hertz wave transmitter and 2) the Tesla wave transmitter (for lack of a better name). The radio transmitter uses a dipole radio antenna to launch radio space waves. The Tesla transmitter uses a well-grounded, top loaded slow-wave helical resonator to launch earth-current coupled Zenneck-like surface waves.

The space waves radiated by a radio transmitter reach a radio receiver either by ground-wave propagation or by reflection off of the ionosphere. The propagation of electromagnetic space waves by means of reflection off of the ionosphere is called sky-wave propagation. The ground-wave component of the radiated space wave propagates close to the earth's surface. It has both direct-wave and ground-reflected components, and under certain conditions a tropospheric ducting component. The direct-wave is limited by the distance to the horizon from the transmitter plus a small distance added by atmospheric diffraction around the curvature of the earth. The ground-reflected portion of the radiated wave reaches the receiving antenna after being reflected by the earth's surface. A portion of the ground-wave energy radiated by the antenna may also be guided by the earth's surface as a ground-hugging surface wave. The induced ground-hugging surface-wave component of the ground wave is known as the Norton surface wave. It is the result of electrical currents induced in the ground by refraction of a portion of the reflected-wave component at the earth-atmosphere interface. Upon reflection from the earth's surface the ground-reflected wave undergoes a 180-degree phase reversal.

When both the transmitting and receiving antennas are on, or close to, the ground and the distance between them approaches the above-described limit, the direct and reflected components tend to cancel each other out, and the resulting field intensity is principally that of the surface wave. Because the ground absorbs part of its energy, the electrical intensity of the surface wave is attenuated at a much greater rate than inversely as the distance. It is the conductivity of the underlying terrain that determines the attenuation of the surface-wave field intensity as a function of distance. The ground currents of a vertically polarized surface wave do not short-circuit a given electric field but rather serve to restore part of the used energy to the following field. The better the conducting surface layer, the more energy returned and the less energy absorbed. [Antennas and Radio Propagation, TM 11-666, Dept. of the Army, Feb. 1953, pp. 17-23.]

The Zenneck-like surface wave launched by a Tesla transmitter reaches its counterpart receiver by the propagation of its charge-coupled electric current through the earth. This electric current is accompanied by an equivalent electrical displacement that is obtained by means of electrostatic induction, true electrical conduction, or a combination of these two forms of electrical current along the atmospheric path between the transmitter and the receiver, depending upon how energetic the two oscillators are, this being the main contributing factor as to whether the intervening air between the stations exists in an insulating or a conducting state.

There is a third type of wireless transmitter called the Marconi transmitter. The Marconi transmitter uses a Marconi antenna as its launch structure. This type of antenna has attributes in common with both the radio transmitter antenna and the Tesla transmitter launching structure in that it is intended for the launching of radio space waves, as is the dipole antenna, while at the same time it is physically connected to the earth. Because of this hybrid configuration, Marconi-type antennas launch both radio space waves and earth-current coupled Zenneck-like surface waves.

> I'm now thinking that a "receiver" that is only sensitive to earth currents is needed to answer the locality question. . . .

It is quite possible that a grounded Tesla receiving transformer, with its elevated terminal positioned an electrically short distance above its slow-wave helical resonator, is sensitive only to ground currents and the two possible forms of accompanying coupled surface wave, the Norton surface wave and the Zenneck-like surface wave, both of which exist deep within the far-field radio antenna zone, and not to electromagnetic space waves.

Gary

Henry,

I want to start out by saying that I am not trying to be confrontational. I am only trying, to the best of my ability, to point out things that may have been overlooked by some theoreticians. Being a practitioner I anticipate that you will begin to recognize and understand these things from a slightly different point of view.

You wrote:
> Re. your comments to Gerry, Gary, I would not define a radio transmitter as one that uses a dipole antenna,

The term "dipole antenna" in my definition refers to an electrical dipole and not a physical dipole. This definition is "a priori," like saying that all triangles have three sides. Allow me to revise my definition as follows:

"The ideal radio transmitter uses a dipole radiator in free space to launch radio space waves."

> As far as I can see, none of this analysis of radio wave propagation takes into account the effects of the current from the ground terminal.

This is because an ideal radio transmitter has no ground terminal. I introduced my definition of the Marconi transmitter as a point from which we could start covering this ground. This definition is subject to revision.

Revision 1: The Marconi transmitter uses a Marconi antenna as its launching structure. This type of antenna has attributes in common with both the ideal radio transmitter antenna and the ideal Tesla transmitter launching structure in that it is intended for the launching of radio space waves, as is the dipole antenna, while at the same time it is physically connected to the earth. Because of this hybrid configuration, Marconi-type antennas launch both radio space waves and the earth-current coupled form of surface wave that is characteristic of the Tesla transmitter launching structure. The relative proportion of these two components is determined by the degree of coupling between the antenna's ground plane element and the earth.

Best regards,
Gary

Gavin,

I want to get back to you about your un-tuned RF receiver before much more time passes.

You wrote:
> I came across was an un-tuned RF receiver I had built sometime ago, which consists of a high impedance input stage, RF amplifier, diode detector and audio amplifier. . . . Just a thought, if you want such a receiver I can build you one.

This sounds like exactly what I need for my TC receiver. My communications receiver works okay but it does require separate tuning. I would certainly like to take you up on your offer, if it would not be too much trouble. Do you use a PC board or point-to-point wiring?

> Using a small . . . coil . . . and a . . . copper sphere, I found a strong radio reception using the above receiver as long as the base of the coil was connected to ground. The receiver is . . . placed in close proximity of the coil, . . . coupling into the electric field around the metal sphere.

This pretty much the same method used to couple the communications receiver to the Tesla receiver used for my July 27, 2002 observation. The Tesla receiver was grounded, of course, and the radio receiver was grounded as well. I brought the antenna lead into fairly close proximity to the wire that connected the resonator to the adjustable elevated terminal (Al foil on a wooden dowel), at a point about 65 cm above the resonator's top turn. A photo of the apparatus is located at http://www.teslaradio.com/images/000_0298-1.jpg . In subsequent investigations I have found that inductive coupling can give one a little more signal. I eliminated the radio receiver's ground and connected it directly to the receiving transformer secondary. This relates to Tesla's statement, "You will find that you can do much better, if you have such a device, to produce the necessary pressure by turns, than by resonant rise, because if you want to excite it by resonance you have to link only a few lines; start with a very low electromotive force and work it up. But, if you have such a device as I have described, you can obtain any pressure you like by a few secondary turns." [NTAC, p. 100.]

> Connecting the RF stage of the receiver to a frequency counter, I found the received signal was around 760kHz (i.e. the top-loaded frequency of the coil by the sphere).

It would be interesting to observe the performance of your Tesla receiver with a helical resonator and elevated terminal that is tuned to the 760 kHz signal.

> . . . I am interested in purchasing the DVD set of the conference, would you rather I wait until you have sorted out the Corum lecture DVD problem?

I have resolved the Corum lecture DVD problem. As for purchasing the full set, only the Corum and Meyl lectures are available at this time.

Best regards,
Gary

Henry,

You wrote:
> . . . conventional [radio propagation ] theories . . . describe radio propagation adequately, but don't describe the concept of electrical conduction through the earth from the ground terminal of a Tesla transmitter at all.

I agree with you completely. According to radio wave propagation theory the Marconi antenna is just a modified 1/2-wave dipole Hertz antenna, adapted to the real-world conditions encountered in the construction of low frequency transmitters, and the 1/4-wave monopole antenna functions solely due to the fact that the lower half of the antenna acts as a mirror for the radiated energy. Furthermore antenna and propagation theory demands that any earth currents and coupled surface waves are wholly the result of electrical currents induced in the ground by refraction of a portion of the reflected-wave component and nothing else. A similar situation exists for electromagnetic radiation propagating through a wave-guide.

> Basic electrical theory says that this earth current exists, . . .

Basic closed-circuit electrical theory deals with electrical power supplies, the electrical current and the charge-coupled electromagnetic field that flows along electrical conductors, and the passage of displacement current across the intervening dielectric medium between capacitor plates.

> . . . but whether it propagates to a significant distance or is just a localized effect is an open question.

A dipole antenna can be modeled as two spread-open capacitor plates connected to an AC electrical generator. Electric field lines connect the two plates, and as the charge carriers oscillate back and forth in the antenna many of these electric field lines become detached, close back upon them selves, and propagate out into free space as electromagnetic radiation. According to antenna and propagation theory, exactly the same thing happens with grounded transmitting antennas. The upper half of the dipole appears in the form of the 1/4 wavelength above-ground structure and the lower half of the dipole commonly exists as a set of bonded conductors laid out in a radial pattern and buried a short distance below the surface of the earth. The antenna current flows through the 1/4 wavelength element and, on the lower side, through both the radial conductors and the earth in which they are buried. The connection of the two halves of the electrical dipole by the electric field lines is strictly a localized effect, and beyond that the electrical energy propagates exclusively as radio waves. Applying the principle of reciprocity, the antenna of a grounded radio receiver placed at a distance has only these radio waves to work with. In other words, the connection between transmitter and receiver is solely by means of radio waves propagating in free space or the earth-ionosphere waveguide. Whenever more than a few wavelengths separate the transmitter and receiver there can be no direct connection through the earth. The connection must be via radio waves alone. They might be radio waves propagating in a waveguide, but that's totally irrelevant; they are still radio waves. This describes, what happens with open circuit low frequency radio systems-according to the presently accepted theory. Some theorists have asserted that Tesla's closed circuit system must also work in this manner, but this cannot be true because ideal Tesla transmitters do not emit radio waves and ideal Tesla receivers are not sensitive to radio waves. The architecture of the actual electric circuits that are involved with both of these systems suggests an additional possibility.

Fully developed, the basic Tesla wireless system consists of two identical high potential electrical oscillators, each with a deeply buried ground terminal, and an elevated terminal. Placed at a distance from each other, these elements, in combination with the earth and the atmosphere between them comprise a closed electrical circuit. This closed circuit includes a capacitor formed by the two distant elevated terminals and the intervening insulating atmosphere.

Antenna and propagation theory says there can be absolutely no capacitive coupling between these two elevated terminals. "If a Tesla-coil transmitter and a Tesla receiving transformer are separated by more than a wavelength, then closed circuit-concepts no longer apply, and we have to model the propagation as radio waves traveling in a waveguide." "Whenever the transmitter and receiver are separated by more than a few wavelengths, then there is no direct coupling; no capacitor connecting the two. The connection is via radio waves." Maxwell's electromagnetic field theory demands that once the distance between the two elevated terminals exceeds a few wavelengths then energy transfer has to be by means of electromagnetic radiation alone. This theoretical assertion is contradicted by numerous physical observations of wireless energy transmission over multiple wavelength distances using Tesla transmitters and receivers in which radio waves are not involved. When one is confronted with such a discrepancy between theory and observation, one is compelled by logic and reason to recognize that the theory needs revision.

> Electromagnetic theory can give the answer, but it is difficult. . . .

I believe that Maxwell's electromagnetic field theory is incapable of resolving this contradiction. It has been noted that there are differences between the wave equation according to Laplace and the wave equation according to Maxwell resulting in an inconsistency. In the Laplace equation Maxwell's damping term is missing while the divergence E factor does appear. Comparing the coefficients of both wave descriptions, mathematically, Maxwell's damping term can be seen to correspond to Laplace's divergence E factor. A problem exists in the way Maxwell's equations describe the E-field in a dielectric adjacent to a conductor in which eddy currents are circulating, such as the metallic parts of a transmitting antenna and the plates of a capacitor. Mathematically, the eddy current appears as a rotating vortex, and the charge coupled E-field as a non-rotating vortex. This cannot be because when rotating eddy currents are present inside of a conductor, the laws of field refraction demand that the charge coupled electric field in the adjacent dielectric also be rotating. If there is rotation on the one side, then the field on the other side must also be rotating. Here is an obvious failure of the Maxwell theory.

In regards to divergence phenomena in dielectrics:
1. Noise is factored out of the Maxwell-derived field theory.
2. The noise part in the wave equation has to be put to zero (div E = 0).
3. The wave descriptions according to Maxwell and according to Laplace are inconsistent and contradictory
4. The dielectric losses of an antenna cannot be found physically nor calculated with the Maxwell-derived wave equation.
5. Also the dielectric losses of a capacitor are not identified as eddy current losses. (The present interpretation is that these losses are the result of defects in the insulating material).
6. That capacitor losses correspond to the generation of noise is not identified.
7. The dielectric constant E (epsilon) has to be written down in a complex form to explain the occurring losses, resulting in an inner contradiction that is hidden in a complex constant.

Regards,
Gary

Henry,

You wrote:
> I was referring to current from the ground terminal in Tesla's open circuit concept. I am not concerned with his closed circuit wireless concept.

Tesla's closed circuit system is essentially identical to his open circuit system and cannot be excluded from this discussion.

> The Tesla transmitter shown in his patent drawings would transmit radio waves, and the Tesla receiver shown there would receive them, but both would be inefficient, as intended, because the elevated conducting hemispheres are much less than one-quarter wavelength above the ground.

The older wireless patents do show something like an antenna between the flat-spiral resonator and the elevated terminal, but when it came to constructing commercial apparatus Tesla seriously tweaked the design. Referring to the transmitter shown in APPARATUS FOR TRANSMITTING ELECTRICAL ENERGY, Jan. 18, 1902, U.S. Patent 1,119,732, Dec. 1, 1914 ( http://www.tfcbooks.com/patents/tower.htm ), if the slow-wave helical resonator is lengthened so that it reaches all the way up to the bottom of the elevated terminal (according to his instructions, "coil B . . . if desired, may be extended up to the terminal D") the machine is pretty much useless as source of radio waves.

> I can't imagine why anyone would say that the Tesla closed-circuit concept would work via radio waves. Tesla clearly was talking about electrical conduction, not radiation, in his closed circuit concept.

Yes, I agree. And the electrical conduction that Tesla was talking about is in two different forms, 1) the electrical current and the charge-coupled electromagnetic field that flows along electrical conductors, and 2) the displacement current that in effect passes across the intervening dielectric medium between two capacitor plates.

> There is nothing wrong with Maxwell's electromagnetic theory. It has stood the test of time for about 150 years.

Yes, I agree there is nothing wrong with Maxwell's electromagnetic theory--so long as you are not trying to explain how a Tesla wireless transmitter actually transmits, how the electromagnetic energy actually propagates, and how a Tesla wireless receiver actually receives.

> I am not sure what you are saying, but the capacitance between two conducting spheres drops to approximately its value at infinite separation after they are separated more than a few sphere radii. In other words, it would not normally be a factor in a Tesla system.

Yes, according to Maxwell this would be the case. However, this assertion is contradicted by numerous physical observations made over the years of wireless energy transmission across distances of many wavelengths using Tesla transmitters and receivers in which radio waves were not involved. The only other propagation mechanism is ground currents between the two ground terminals and displacement currents between the two elevated terminals.

> I do not know why you say radio waves were not involved in the experiment you refer to. How could you tell?

Tesla asserted that the energy associated with an operating Tesla coil transmitter of proper design is predominantly non-radiating with negligible emissions in the form of radio waves. This is a basic tenet behind the operation of Tesla transmitting and receiving apparatus; that radio waves are not involved with the transfer of electrical energy between the two stations. The purpose of my experiments is to demonstrate that this is actually the case. That radio waves are not involved can be shown with a good radio receiver that is tunable to the Tesla coil transmitter's operating frequency, and which is sensitive only to radio waves. The radio receiver's antenna must be configured in such a way so that it interacts only with radio waves and not with the non-radiating emissions of the Tesla coil transmitter. Some appropriate antennas for this purpose are the vertical 1/2-wave dipole antenna suspended high above the ground to minimize capacitive coupling to the earth, the tuned air loop antenna, or the tuned ferrite loop-stick antenna.

The basic assumptions behind this experiment are as follows:

1) The energy associated with an operating Tesla coil transmitter of proper design is predominantly non-radiating with negligible emissions existing in the form of radio waves.

2) Radio receivers connected to non-grounded or non-counterpoise radio antennas are more sensitive, to a degree yet to be determined, to radio waves than they are to the non-radiating electromagnetic field energy associated with an operating Tesla coil transmitter. Furthermore, non-grounded radio antennas can be constructed, the performance of which approach that of the ideal radio antenna.

3) Grounded Tesla receiving transformers are more sensitive, to a degree yet to be determined, to the non-radiating energy associated with an operating Tesla coil transmitter than they are to radio waves. Furthermore, grounded Tesla coil transmitters and Tesla coil receivers can be constructed, the performance of which approach the ideal in both cases. Additionally, it is likely that radio receivers with grounded tuned antennas are also more or less capable of collecting the predominant form of electrical energy associated with an operating Tesla coil transmitter.

It follows from this, if the energy from an operating Tesla coil transmitter is well collected by a Tesla receiving transformer, but is not well collected by a radio receiver connected to non-grounded or non-counterpoise radio antenna, while at the same time the radio receiver does well collect energy from a radio-wave transmitter connected to non-grounded, non-counterpoise radio antenna, all of these operating at the same frequency, then the electrical energy from the Tesla coil transmitter that is well collected by the Tesla receiving transformer is not predominantly in the form of radio waves.

> There obviously would be some transmission and reception of radio waves.

Not if there were no significant radio waves transmitted in the first place.

> The only other medium of transmission would be conduction through the earth, which of course would be interesting if radio transmission could be ruled out.

Yes, and if radio waves were ruled out, that would suggest the passage of electrical energy between the two elevated terminals is by means of displacement currents or, using Tesla's terminology, "electrostatic induction."

> What frequency were you using?

108 kHz.

> I do not know what contradictions you are referring to. I was talking about using Maxwell's equations to calculate the current from the ground terminal in a Tesla open circuit system versus distance from the ground terminal and frequency. There is no problem in principle, but the equations are difficult to solve without resorting to computer numerical computations.

I am referring to inconsistency between the wave equation according to Laplace and the wave equation according to Maxwell that has to do with dielectric losses in capacitors. This relates to the coupling between the elevated terminals of the Tesla transmitter and the Tesla receiver.

Gary

Hello,

On April 16, 2007 Henry wrote:
>> I agree with Paul. To the extent that the Earth is acting like a perfectly conducting sphere; i.e., good enough to set up the proposed whole-Earth oscillation, the conduction would be a near surface effect, and the approximately 12 Hz resonance would not exist. As I said before, the surface wave producing the approximately 8 Hz resonance would be modified by the concentric ionosphere, producing the fundamental Schumann resonance.

Tesla spoke in no uncertain terms of a terrestrial resonant frequency of not more than 12 Hz that corresponds with a theoretical terrestrial resonance frequency of 11.787 Hz. The only way to know for sure that this terrestrial resonance actually exists is to repeat the measurement.

On April 16, 2007 Paul wrote:
> If the sphere is perfectly conducting, how can there be any propagation through the body of the sphere? The skin depth would be zero.

In flowing from the pole of the transmitter to the antipode the current only gives the appearance of passing diametrically through the earth.

"When a [low frequency radio transmitter] circuit, connected to ground and to an elevated capacity oscillates, two effects separate and distinct are produced; Hertz waves are radiated in a direction at right angles to the axis of symmetry of the conductor, and simultaneously a current is passed through the earth. The former propagates with the speed of light, the latter with a velocity proportionate to the cosecant of an angle which from the origin to the opposite point of the globe varies from zero to 180°. Expressed in words, at the start the speed is infinite and diminishes, first rapidly and then slowly until a quadrant is traversed when the current proceeds with the speed of light. From that region on the velocity gradually increases, becoming infinite at the opposite point of the globe. In a patent granted to me in 1905, I have summed up this law of propagation in the statement that the projections of all half waves on the axis of symmetry of movement are equal, which means that the successive half waves, tho of different length, cover exactly the same area." [Tesla, Nikola, "The Effects of Static on Wireless transmission," ELECTRICAL EXPERIMENTER, January 1919, pp. 627, 658.]

"Let us imagine that my transmitter is located at this point, and that the current generated by it now passes through the earth. It does not pass through the earth in the ordinary acceptance of the term, it only penetrates to a certain depth according to the frequency. Most of it goes on the surface, but with frequencies such as I employ, it will dive a few miles below. It can be mathematically shown that it is immaterial how it passes; the aggregate effect of these currents is as if the whole current passes from the transmitter, which I call the pole, to the opposite point, which I call the antipode." [NIKOLA TESLA ON HIS WORK WITH ALTERNATING CURRENTS AND THEIR APPLICATION TO WIRELESS TELEGRAPHY, TELEPHONY AND TRANSMISSION OF POWER, pp. 138.]

". . . The electromagnetic energy travels with the speed of light, but see how the current flows. At the first moment, this current propagates exactly like the shadow of the moon at the earth's surface. It starts with infinite velocity from that point, but its speed rapidly diminishes; it flows slower and slower until it reaches the equator, 6,000 miles from the transmitter. At that point, the current flows with the speed of light -- that is, 300,000 kilometers per second. But, if you consider the resultant current through the globe along the axis of symmetry of propagation, the resultant current flows continuously with the same velocity of light.

"Whether this current passing through the center of the earth to the opposite side is real, or whether it is merely an effect of these surface currents, makes absolutely no difference. To understand the concept, one must imagine that the current from the transmitter flows straight to the opposite point of the globe." [Ibid, pp. 140-141.]

> I don't see how Tesla could have measured any resonances with the apparatus available to him, either at 8hz or 12Hz.

Experiments by the Corum brothers show that with a crude Branly coherer receiver RF signal sensitivity on the order of 80 millivolts peak-to-peak is easily achieved. Their analysis of Tesla's more advanced regenerative coherer receiver indicates 60 dB improvement over this would have been possible.

Tesla also had a stroboscopic instrument for measuring frequency and phase that would have allowed him to discriminate between closely-spaced pulses on the order of 1/12 second. "It has proved itself to be so necessary and valuable an implement in experimental investigations that its description here may afford useful information." The spinning disk consisted of a, "circular rim with narrow spokes cut out of thin aluminum sheet, and black paper glued on the frame-all marks and divisions of the former being, of course, white. I found it convenient to draw concentric circles with a number of marks such that all vibrations within the range of the apparatus could be read off. In addition, a segmental piece of hard rubber N, supported on a bar T and properly marked, was used to read fractions or, respectively, take corrections for any irregularity in the rotation during a prolonged period of time."

"Near the disk was placed a vacuum tube or, in its place, an adjustable spark gap l, which was connected to the secondary of a small transformer, the primary of which was positively controlled by the mechanical or electromagnetic system the vibrations of which were to be determined. In preparing a spring of the desired period of vibration for one of the instruments described, for instance, the spring was provisorily mounted on the instrument and the latter put in operation. The disk, intermittently illuminated by the discharges of the secondary coil, was released from the pendulum and rotated until synchronism was attained, the revolutions being computed by observing the white mark m. The constants of the spring were then modified after a simple calculation from the first result, and in the second trial, as a rule, the vibration was so close as to enable the use of the escapement, the adjustment then being completed, generally by altering the weight of the hammer on the spring until the marks on the disk, by the nominal speed of rotation, appeared stationary in space." [NIKOLA TESLA: LECTURE BEFORE THE NEW YORK ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, APRIL 6, 1897, Tesla Presents Series Part 2, Leland I. Anderson, Twenty First Century Books, 1994, pp. 61, 65-66; this instrument is also illustrated and briefly described in NIKOLA TESLA ON HIS WORK WITH ALTERNATING CURRENTS AND THEIR APPLICATION TO WIRELESS TELEGRAPHY, TELEPHONY AND TRANSMISSION OF POWER, pp.158-159.]

> What made him think that he had?

I believe that Tesla trusted his own experimental technique. Whenever a piece Tesla apparatus is replicated it invariably performs as he says it does. This is not to say that his explanation of how it works is always entirely accurate. The same seems to hold true for his reported observations. While you can count on the data being good, sometimes the explanation behind an observed phenomenon is not entirely accountable when viewed in the light of modern ideas, some of which them-selves are probably illusionary. Dr. Corum summed things nicely in the "Introduction" to the paper "Atmospheric Fields, Tesla's Receivers and Regenerative Detectors."

"We have pursued the published literature of Nikola Tesla for several decades, now. While we must confess that on any given topic our initial attitude was usually one of incredulity with this brilliant scientist, yet we have, over the years, found by experimental investigation that Dr. Tesla's technical assertions and comments have been reliable and trustworthy. (If he said he saw something or did something in the laboratory, then he saw it or did it. And, you can take it to the bank.)

"This was true concerning his 'Extra Coil' resonator. What was lacking when we started on that apparatus was a modern critical engineering study-both experimental and analytical. It was true concerning his laboratory production of 'Ball Lightning.' What was again lacking was an engineering understanding of the fireball generation apparatus. When this was obtained by an interactive research program, the experimental and analytical verification followed in a matter of hours.

Let us make it transparently clear that the engineering analysis did not come about by mere 'pencil and paper' contemplation. Years of failure-in both theory and experiment-were required to finally hammer out the (now) obvious. [Those academicians and journalists among us reading this haven't a clue as to what we just said! (Not a clue!!)] Engineering is not a cerebral exercise. It's not mathematics. And, it's certainly not computer simulation, although, if their limitations are understood, these are great instruments for lessening the toil and clarifying the understanding of the engineer and inventor. The problem is theological: while analytical and numerical models may be explored, optimized and exploited, they're confined in an isolated box that is no better than their human architects. In the real world of nature we are bound only by the fundamental limits of creation." [ATMOSPHERIC FIELDS, TESLA'S RECEIVERS AND REGENERATIVE DETECTORS, K.L. Corum, J.F. Corum, Ph.D. and A.H. Aidinejad, Ph.D., 1994, p. 2].

Regards,
Gary

On April 15, 2007 Gerry wrote:
> . . . I chose an ideal sphere so we would not need to focus as much on the real model of the earth. My thinking was to get understanding of how the currents would work in the ideal sphere first, and then progress toward a more representative model. Most likely, areas of uncertainty will arise during this process and then we can agree on where the uncertainty is and propose experiments to answer those questions.

On April 20, 2007 Henry wrote:
> . . . the capacitance between two conducting spheres drops to approximately its value at infinite separation after they are separated more than a few sphere radii. In other words, it would not normally be a factor in a Tesla system.

The biggest area of uncertainty is this matter of the coupling between the two elevated terminals of a widely spaced ideal Tesla Transmitter and ideal Tesla receiver pair when an ionized path is not available. One school of thought says this connection must be by means of radio waves. (It is noted that an ideal Tesla transmitter does not produce radio waves, so no connection could exist.) The other school of thought says this connection is by displacement currents. (Note that according to Maxwell's electromagnetic theory if the spacing between two capacitor plates exceeds a few wavelengths then and coupling between them must be by means of radio waves and no displacement current could exist.)

As I pointed out before, the energy associated with an operating Tesla coil transmitter of proper design is predominantly non-radiating with negligible emissions in the form of radio waves. The basic tenet behind the operation of Tesla transmitting and receiving apparatus is that radio waves are not involved with the transfer of electrical energy between the two stations. A simple experiment would demonstrate that this is actually the case.

First, place a properly designed tuned Tesla coil transmitter and Tesla coil receiver pair at a distance exceeding a few wavelengths and put the system into operation to demonstrate its functionality.

That radio waves are not involved in the transfer of energy can be shown by testing the emissions of the Tesla coil transmitter following the guidelines set out in "FCC Methods of Measurement of Radio Noise Emissions From Industrial, Scientific, and Medical Equipment." If the Tesla coil transmitter is found not to be a radio wave emitter then the connection between the Tesla coil transmitter and the Tesla coil receiver must be by some means other than radio waves.

The radio wave emissions testing is to be done using a good radio receiver that is tunable to the Tesla coil transmitter's operating frequency, and which is sensitive only to radio waves. The radio wave receiver's antenna must be configured in such a way so that it interacts only with radio waves and not with the non-radiating emissions of the Tesla coil transmitter. Some appropriate antennas for this purpose are the vertical 1/2-wave dipole antenna suspended high above the ground to minimize capacitive coupling to the earth, the tuned air loop antenna, and the tuned ferrite loop-stick antenna. A radio wave transmitter connected to one of the above antennas should be used to test the efficacy of the radio wave receiver.

The basic assumptions behind this experiment are as follows:

1) The emission associated with an operating Tesla coil transmitter of proper design is predominantly non-radiating with negligible emission in the form of radio waves.

2) Radio receivers connected to non-grounded or non-counterpoise radio antennas are more sensitive, to a degree yet to be determined, to radio waves than they are to the non-radiating electromagnetic field energy associated with an operating Tesla coil transmitter. Furthermore, non-grounded radio antennas can be constructed, the performance of which approach that of the ideal radio antenna.

3) Grounded Tesla receiving transformers are more sensitive, to a degree yet to be determined, to the non-radiating energy associated with an operating Tesla coil transmitter than they are to radio waves. Furthermore, grounded Tesla coil transmitters and Tesla coil receivers can be constructed, the performance of which approach the ideal in both cases. Additionally, it is likely that radio receivers with grounded tuned antennas are also more or less capable of collecting the predominant form of electrical energy associated with an operating Tesla coil transmitter.

It follows from this, if the energy from an operating Tesla coil transmitter is well collected by a Tesla receiving transformer, but is not well collected by a radio receiver connected to non-grounded or non-counterpoise radio antenna, while at the same time the radio receiver does well collect energy from a radio-wave transmitter connected to non-grounded, non-counterpoise radio antenna, all of these operating at the same frequency, then the electrical energy from the Tesla coil transmitter that is well collected by the Tesla receiving transformer is not predominantly in the form of radio waves.

Regards,
Gary

Hello,

On April 20, 2007 I wrote:
>> Tesla's closed circuit system is essentially identical to his open circuit system and cannot be excluded from this discussion.

In response Henry wrote:
> They are not the same at all. They would work on very different principles. Tesla may have intended to use the same type of transmitter and receiver for both, but the process of transmitting a current to a receiver via a closed circuit through the upper atmosphere is electrically very different from transmitting a current through the ground alone from a single ground terminal. That is the current that I was talking about.

The transmitting and receiving apparatus are known to be identical. The principle that an electrical current flows through the ground between these two elements has been established. Furthermore, when a receiving station is in operation it is apparent to me that the two respective elevated terminals are capacitively coupled by electrostatic induction with displacement currents that pass across the intervening space. If a harmonic of the approximately 12 Hz fundamental earth resonance frequency is used, such as 29,467 kHz, then the only difference is the power level at which the system is operated.

> The whole vertical structure up to and including the elevated conductor would radiate like the vertical antenna of a radio transmitter fed by the Tesla coil transformer. Similarly, the whole vertical structure of the receiver would act as a radio receiving antenna, feeding the receiver's load through its Tesla coil transformer. The only thing that makes them relatively inefficient in this role is the fact that the height of the elevated conductors/terminals above the ground is much less than one-
> quarter of a wavelength at the frequencies that Tesla likely would have used.

If the vertical cylindrical connection up to the cupola is eliminated, and at the same time the slow-wave helical resonator itself is lengthened so that it reaches all the way up to the bottom of the cupola, as Tesla said could be done, then there would be negligible radio wave emissions.

> The principles of Tesla's open circuit system are entirely covered by Maxwell's theory.

In speaking about the electrostatic field associated with an "elevated terminal charged to a high potential" Tesla stated that most of it "circulates locally and is useless except that it adds to the momentum," and that "a relatively small number of lines . . . however, go off to great distance and to . . . which is due the action at a distance." ["The True Wireless, ELECTRICAL EXPERIMENTER, May 1919 This idea that displacement currents can "go off to great distance" is not covered at all by Maxwell's theory; it is totally discounted.

> I don't see where you find a contradiction. Electrostatic theory says that the capacitance between the terminals becomes negligible at moderate separations. So the energy is transmitted by some means other than displacement current flowing between the terminals. That leaves "induction " electric or magnetic fields if the terminals are separated by less than a wavelength, radio waves if the separation is much greater, and earth current from the transmitter's ground terminal.

And there lies the rub.

> Displacement current between the elevated terminals is just another way of describing the current due to the capacitance between the terminals.

Yes.

> What is the non-radiating energy associated with the Tesla transmitter that you refer to . . . ?

The forms of non-radiating electromagnetic energy that I am referring to are the current and coupled field that flows between the two ground terminals, and the displacement current that exists between the two elevated terminals.

>> Yes, and if radio waves were ruled out, that would suggest the passage of electrical energy between the two elevated terminals is by means of displacement currents or, using Tesla's terminology, "electrostatic induction."

> Not displacement currents. I am not sure what Tesla meant by electrostatic induction.

Electrostatic induction takes place by means of displacement currents just as magnetic induction takes place by means of magnetic flux.

> If radio waves were ruled out, there would be no transmission of electrical energy between elevated terminals separated by a distance much greater than the radii of the terminals.

And this is where we disagree. . . .

Gary

Henry,

You wrote:
> I assume that you are not putting metal shielding around your Tesla coil and the conductors leading from it to the elevated terminal and the ground in order to prevent radiation, are you?

No, I am not.

> I don't know where this school of thought is. . . .

Nikola Tesla, Fred Yost, Eric Dollard, Kenneth Corum, James Corum, Jim Hardesty, William Wysock, Konstantin Meyl, Steffen Finger, myself and perhaps some others on this list. Also perhaps Richard Quick, Richard Hull, . . . I'm sure there are more, some who for one reason or another do not wish to step forward and make their opinion known.

Regards,
Gary

Hi Bill,

You wrote:
> Remember the scene in "Young Frankenstein," down in the dungeon, following the violin music to the secret library? And the lost journal with the title stamped on the front:
>
> HOW I DID IT.
> by Baron Victor Von Frankenstein
>
> Where's Tesla's?!!!

Respectfully submitted for your consideration:

1) My Inventions : The Autobiography of Nikola Tesla
Nikola Tesla; Ben Johnston, Editor

2) "The Problem of Increasing Human Energy"
Nikola Tesla; Robert Underwood Johnson, Editor

3) Inventions, Researches and Writings of Nikola Tesla
Nikola Tesla; Thomas Commerford Martin, Editor

4) "The Transmission of Electric Energy Without Wires"
Nikola Tesla

5) Nikola Tesla On His Work With Alternating Currents and Their Application to Wireless Telegraphy, Telephony, and Transmission of Power
Tesla Presents Series Part 1
Nikola Tesla; Leland I. Anderson, Editor

6) Nikola Tesla: Lecture Before The New York Academy of Sciences, April 6, 1897
Tesla Presents Series Part 2
Nikola Tesla; Leland I. Anderson, Editor

7) "High Frequency Oscillators for Electro-therapeutic and Other Purposes"
Nikola Tesla

8) Nikola Tesla: Guided Weapons & Computer Technology
Tesla Presents Series Part 3
Nikola Tesla, et al; Leland I. Anderson, Editor

9) Nikola Tesla's Teleforce & Telegeodynamics Proposals
Tesla Presents Series Part 4
Nikola Tesla; Leland I. Anderson, Editor

10) Nikola Tesla - Lectures . Patents . Articles
Nikola Tesla; Nikola Tesla Museum

11) Nikola Tesla - Colorado Springs Notes, 1899-1900
Nikola Tesla; Commentary by Aleksandar Marincic

12) Dr. Nikola Tesla:
I. English / Serbo-Croatian Diary Comparisons
II. Serbo-Croatian Diary Commentary
III. Tesla / Scherff Colorado Springs Correspondence
John T. Ratzlaff & Fred A. Jost

13) Dr. Nikola Tesla - Complete Patents
Nikola Tesla; Compiled by John T. Ratzlaff

14) Dr. Nikola Tesla - Selected Patent Wrappers
Nikola Tesla; Compiled by John T. Ratzlaff

15) The Tesla Bladeless Turbine and Related Turbomachinery
Nikola Tesla, et al; Compiled by Gary L. Peterson

16) Tesla's Engine - A New Dimension For Power
Nikola Tesla, et al; Compiled by Jeffery A. Hayes

17) Tesla Said
Nikola Tesla; Compiled by John T. Ratzlaff

18) Solutions to Tesla's Secrets
Nikola Tesla; Compiled by John T. Ratzlaff, Thomas Bearden

19) Nikola Tesla -- Collected Articles and Lectures, Volume 1
Nikola Tesla; Compiled by Franz Ferzak & Ulrich Heerd

20) Nikola Tesla -- Collected Articles and Lectures, Volume 2
Nikola Tesla; Compiled by Franz Ferzak & Ulrich Heerd

21) Collected Articles of Nikola Tesla, Volume 1
Compiled by Gary Peterson

22) Collected Articles of Nikola Tesla, Volume 2
Compiled by Gary Peterson

23) Collected Articles of Nikola Tesla, Volume 3
Compiled by Gary Peterson

24) Nikola Tesla - Correspondence with Relatives
Nikola Tesla; Translated by Nicholas Kosanovic

25) Prodigal Genius [This book is based upon personal conversations with 
Nikola Tesla.]

Regards,
Gary

Henry,

You wrote:
> . . . explain to me in a satisfactory way the nature of the disturbance accompanying the current from the ground terminal of the transmitter; i.e., the current and its associated electric and magnetic field components versus frequency and distance from the transmitter.

I'm not certain of the exact explanation that you require. If you could analyze the following simple two-wire AC electrical circuit it will help me to formulate an explanation that might fulfill your requirements.

The example circuit consists of two synchronized 120 V, 25 KVA, 400 Hz single phase engine driven electrical generators, both of which are connected to a potential transformer with a 1:100 turns ratio. The high voltage secondary terminals of these transformers are connected to a two wire transmission line that runs from a location 8 km West-North-West of Cornwall, Ontario to a location 8 km East-South-East of Winnipeg, Manitoba, a distance of exactly 1,750 km. One of the transmission line conductors is grounded at both the Cornwall and the Winnipeg ends, and has an end-to-end resistance of 1 ohm. The other conductor has a resistance of 10,000 ohms. A 1 microfarad high voltage capacitor in series with a 6,000-ohm power resistor is placed in shunt connection across the secondary terminals of both potential transformers. A 1 micromicrofarad capacitor is inserted in series connection at the 875 km midpoint between the two ends.

Please analyze the above circuit for distribution of the current and its associated electric and magnetic field components versus frequency and distance along the transmission line.

Regards,
Gary

Henry,

I wrote:
>> The transmitting and receiving apparatus are known to be identical. And you replied:

> I assume that you are talking about the apparatus proposed in Tesla's patent drawings. He didn't build any receiver to match his Wardenclyffe transmitter.

Yes, the patents show mirror image transmitting and receiving transformers. The Wardenclyffe World System station was a prototype for an array of commercial wireless telecommunications stations called "Universal Relays" that he intended to install near urban centers around the world. The second of these stations was to have been constructed on the southern coast of England, possibly near Cornwall. Tesla was purchasing some of the major components in pairs with this second station in mind, but it was never built.

>> The principle that an electrical current flows through the ground between these two elements has been established.

> It has never been established that I know of in an open circuit system. That is what I have been talking about all along. As I have said before, computation of the propagation of the earth current versus distance and frequency would provide the most reliable answer.

The only way to establish the laws of propagation of electrical currents through the earth is by measurement.

>> Furthermore, when a receiving station is in operation it is apparent to me that the two respective elevated terminals are capacitively coupled by electrostatic induction with displacement currents that pass across the intervening space. If a harmonic of the approximately 12 Hz fundamental earth resonance frequency is used, such as 29,467 kHz, then the only difference is the power level at which the system is operated.

> The displacement current that you speak of is the current that would flow due to the capacitance between the two elevated terminals. If you do the calculations, I think that you will find that this capacitance and the displacement current that flows through it are negligible at separations of practical interest between the transmitter and receiver.

Yes, while the displacement current across the intervening space between the two distant elevated terminals is very small, it does exist. Would you mind sharing the calculations that show this?

> I do not believe that the 12 Hz resonance exists, but that is not important.

I feel that it is of tremendous importance. The only way to find out if this resonance exists is by measurement.

> The important question is what the modes of propagation from the transmitter to the receiver at frequencies of the order of 30 kHz would be, other than radio waves, and how well they would propagate. Assuming that the displacement current is negligible, there could be magnetic coupling, transformer style, between the two Tesla coils, and effects caused by the current from the ground terminal of the transmitter. The magnetic field coupling could be estimated easily. I would expect it to be negligible at separations of interest between the transmitter and receiver,

Yes, I would expect that both capacitive, i.e., electrostatic coupling and magnetic, i.e., electro-dynamic coupling on a global scale would be miniscule at the minimum power level of 75 kW required to sustain earth resonance. The important thing is that such coupling, electrostatic at the very least, appears to exist.

> . . . earth current effects . . . are unknown theoretically.

Yes, and as I said above the only way to establish the laws of propagation of electrical currents through the earth is by measurement.

>> If the vertical cylindrical connection up to the cupola is eliminated, and at the same time the slow-wave helical resonator itself is lengthened so that it reaches all the way up to the bottom of the cupola, as Tesla said could be done, then there would be negligible radio wave emissions.

> These construction details are unimportant. The current flowing between the ground and the elevated terminal would radiate just like the vertical transmitting antenna of a radio transmitter operating at the same frequency.

Would it? I've been taught that with a base-loaded antenna the loading coil does not contribute significantly to the radiated field and the straight section is the radiator. If the straight section were to be eliminated than only the close-wound helical resonator would exist. It is conceivable this element could behave as a 1/4-wavelength radiator at a frequency that is generally related to its overall height.

> The amount of power that would be radiated can be calculated using standard radio formulas for an antenna much shorter than one-quarter wavelength. The Tesla transmitter and receiver unavoidably would act as a low frequency radio transmitter and receiver, regardless of whatever other mode of communication they were intended to harness.

I agree that a proper Tesla coil transmitter would act as a poor low frequency transmitter. Tesla himself acknowledged this fact.

> The only feature that would have made them inefficient in the radio mode, as compared to professional low frequency radio systems in Tesla's time, is that the radio systems used very tall antennas.

Yes, and this is one big difference between the two launching and receiving structures. In Tesla's words,

Counsel

"Now, if you were giving that a name, what principle would you say was involved by which the radiation loss, where there is no receiver, becomes a gain or a conservation where there is a receiver?"

Tesla

"There is no radiation in this case. You see, the apparatus which I devised was an apparatus enabling one to produce tremendous differences of potential and currents in an antenna circuit. These requirements must be fulfilled, whether you transmit by currents of conduction, or whether you transmit by electromagnetic waves. You want high potential currents, you want a great amount of vibratory energy; but you can graduate this vibratory energy. By proper design and choice of wave lengths, you can arrange it so that you get, for instance, 5 percent in these electromagnetic waves and 95 percent in the current that goes through the earth. That is what I am doing. Or, you can get, as these radio men, 95 percent in the energy of electromagnetic waves and only 5 percent in the energy of the current. Then you are wondering why you do not get good results. I know why I do not get good results in that way. The apparatus is suitable for one or the other method. I am not producing radiation in my system; I am suppressing electromagnetic waves. But, on the other hand, my apparatus can be used effectively with electromagnetic waves. The apparatus has nothing to do with this new method except that it is the only means to practice it. So that in my system, you should
free yourself of the idea that there is radiation, that energy is radiated. It is not radiated; it is conserved."

> Maxwell's theory, which just is the theory of electricity and magnetism, describes electromagnetic phenomena accurately. This idea is covered by Maxwell's theory (i.e., accepted electromagnetic theory). It would describe the electric field lines accurately, and show that a few do reach the elevated terminal of the receiver.

If this is truly the case then there is no problem.

>> The forms of non-radiating electromagnetic energy that I am referring to are the current and coupled field that flows between the two ground terminals, and the displacement current that exists between the two elevated terminals.

> Fair enough, but these claims require calculations to back them up. If they are done, I think that you will find for distances of practical interest, the displacement current would be negligible; the radio wave would be weak compared to a conventional low frequency transmitter with a tall antenna (as Tesla intended). . . .

The fact that at least "a few [electric field lines] do reach the elevated terminal of the receiver" is sufficient knowledge for the time being. A small alternating current flowing through a closed electrical circuit is sufficient for telecommunications purposes.

> . . . the signal received via the current from the ground terminal of the transmitter requires computations that have never been done to my knowledge.

Well then I guess we had better get on with it, what?

Regards,
Gary

Hi Mike,

You asked:
> . . . are these [generators] synchronized in phase or possibly 180deg out of phase?

The two generators are arranged so as to have a mutual push-pull or boost relationship.

Regards,
Gary

Henry,

You wrote:
> This is a closed circuit, and is unrelated to the problem of current from the ground terminal of an open circuit such as a Tesla transmitter or a grounded low frequency radio transmitter.

Whether or not in you believe the example is representative of some so-called "open circuit" model is irrelevant. I respectfully request that you analyze or cause to be analyzed the example circuit.

Regards,
Gary

Henry,

You wrote:
> . . . I can't resist a good argument . . .

I'm sorry you're unable to perform the requisite mathematical analysis.

Anyway, thanks for the input.

And so it goes.

Regards,
Gary

Malcolm,

In regards to the antenna question, I was thinking along the lines of a tall skinny resonator perhaps acting like a solid metal cylinder as well. The slow wave helical resonator would have some natural resonant frequency, say 15 kHz, and the imagined cylinder may or may not have a resonant frequency that is generally based upon its height alone. This is just a musing with no value to this discussion.

This tendency of Tesla's to make an inaccurate statement and then sometimes or sometimes not correct it a short time later is really irritating and degrades his stature as a scientist. He probably justified such behavior in his mind as simply rounding up or making an argument for a scientific or engineering principle using an ideal model.

I greatly appreciate your comments about getting at the truth of matters, yes, accuracy is all important.

Regards,
Gary

Gerry,

1. Henry wrote on April 11:
>> "Tesla was wrong to believe that the upper atmosphere is like a metallic conductor. A low-pressure gas must be broken down by an electric field to conduct, and maintaining it in this state requires power, which is power wasted. Think in terms of a neon sign of planetary proportions."

You wrote:
> Tesla's closed circuit has me bothered as well. He proposes using a UV beam to connect to the troposphere and then presuming that it will ionize to connect to a similar point over the receiving station. My understanding from all of the comments is that Tesla did not know of the ionosphere at the time. Also, the only experimentation he did for high altitude ionization was in his lab. If a UV laser were to be fired at the upper atmosphere, what would keep it from connecting to the ionosphere?

> If it were to do this, what would result? I asked Gary this question and got an answer of a discharge would result but this would be very speculative.

You asked me "what are the effects of making connection with the ionosphere?" and I replied "It is possible that an electrical discharge could be triggered, but . . . this is pure speculation." The speculation stems from the fact that Earth is a charged body with a ubiquitous downward directed E-field on the order of 100 volts-per-meter.

> Is it even possible to connect to the ionosphere with today's technology?

This is already being done as part of the High-frequency Active Auroral Research Program. [ http://www.haarp.alaska.edu/ .] The connection is not by electrostatic induction, i.e., displacement currents, nor is it by electrical conduction through a plasma transmission line. The connection is made by electromagnetic radiation, i.e., radio waves. The HAARP system apparatus consists of a phased array of HF antennas. Its operation involves the generation of electromagnetic waves at the Earth's surface and their subsequent conversion to electrostatic plasma waves in the ionosphere. [Wong, A. Y., G. J. Morales, D. Eggleston, J. Santoru, and R. Behnke, "Rapid conversion of electromagnetic waves to electrostatic waves in the ionosphere," Phys. Rev. Lett., 47, 1340-1343, 1981.]

> If so, could the resulting discharge be a measure of how effective atmospheric ionization is in conducting current? If the voltage difference between the ionosphere and ground is known, the total stored charge could easily be computed. If this charge were to be totally discharged by such a connection, I would think that would be very noteworthy. I have no idea of the upper limit of the size of the discharge or how fast the ionosphere would recover if totally discharge, but the thought of such an experiment is intriguing.

It is, isn't it?

2. Henry wrote on April 11:

>> "Also re. 1, Tesla thought that power could be transmitted readily around the globe via conduction through the Earth, but he did not know about the ionosphere, which I claim dampens the electrical oscillations of the Earth so much that significant power transfer is impossible. Also, as I said above, I was not talking about a different method of open circuit transmission. I believe that the earth current standing wave would unavoidably be coupled to electromagnetic fields in the Earth-ionosphere cavity. My guess is a vertical electric field."

> Would such a standing wave in the earth be dependent on the presence of the ionosphere or would a standing wave be better created if there were no atmosphere?

The terrestrial standing wave that Henry spoke about occurs in the resonant cavity formed from the earth's surface, the insulating atmosphere and the conducting ionosphere. This resonance occurs with a fundamental frequency of about 8 Hz. Without the atmosphere, in particular the ionosphere, there would be no cavity resonator.

3. Henry wrote on April 11:

>> "Re. 9: The current from the ground terminal of a Tesla transmitter or a radio transmitter is due to the EMF of the transmitter causing charge to oscillate between the ground and the elevated conductor in the Tesla transmitter, or the antenna in the radio transmitter. Electrically, it is the same phenomenon in both cases. The elevated conductor and the radio antenna both have capacitance which allows them to be charged by the transmitter's output voltage. That is basically it, although there is also some distributed capacitance as well, so the capacitance is not exactly a lumped circuit element.

> Yes. It seems like there is both a displacement current from the elevated terminal to ground as well as to the ionosphere. Would this displacement current to the ionosphere be the driving force that makes the ground current propagate thru earth (apparently measured by Tesla at Colorado Springs)?

»The driving force that makes the ground current flow through the earth is the displacement current between the elevated terminal and the earth's surface. Keep in mind that Earth is a negatively charged body relative to the conducting ionosphere and that an operating Tesla coil transmitter creates a periodic annular disturbance in this charge. That Earth is a charged body allows the introduction of certain models developed by plasma physicists. One of these plasma physics models is that in which the involved electrons are assumed not to interact with each other, but only with ions (Z -> infinity) and where the ions are assumed to remain at rest (ion mass approximated as infinity). This is the Lorentz gas model, also known as the "electron gas" model. [Plasma Dictionary, http://plasmadictionary.llnl.gov/terms.lasso?-MaxRecords=1&-SkipRecords=14&-SortField=Term&-SortOrder=ascending&ABC=L&page=detail .]

In this regard Dr. Corum has stated:
"Because of its surprisingly low resistance at very low frequencies, the global spherical transmission line, like any other "good conductor," may be modeled as an electron gas. Consequently, there will exist the possibility of long-range coulomb interactions, which engender longitudinal "compressional" electric waves and bear a striking similarity to the Zenneck waves propagating over the surface of the earth. These plasma waves behave like real surface waves. (This may account for Tesla's asserted similarity between longitudinal waves and wireless signal propagation. [Dunlap, O.E., "Tesla Sees Evidence Radio and Light are Sound," New York Times, April 8, 1934, Section X, p. 9, Col. 1; Hugo Gernsback, "Faster than Light," EVERDAY SCIENCE AND MECHANICS, Vol. 2, No. 12, November 1931, (Editorial).]) In recent times, the idea of surface plasma excitations (called plasmons) on a conducting metallic surface goes back to Ritchie. [Ritchie, R.H., Physical Review, Vol. 106, 1957, p. 874.] There are several techniques for exciting Zenneck waves (or Zenneck-Sommerfeld waves as they are called in optics) over conducting surfaces:

* Energy can be coupled to these surface waves by prisms operating in an ATR (attenuated total reflection) mode, which is also called "prism coupling" or "excitation by evanescent waves." [Otto, A., Zeitschrift fur Physik, Vol. 216, 1968, p. 398.] They can be directly excited by incident radiation on gratings and by surface roughness. [Raether, H., "Surface Plasma Oscillations and Their Applications," Physics of Thin Films, Vol. 9, 1977, pp. 145-261.] (Does this have any relation with the Rocky Mountains to the west of Tesla's Colorado Springs laboratory?)

* There is a "large aperture" method of excitation suggested by some radio scientists (but considered impractical at VLF). (Hill, D.A. and J.R. Wait, "Excitation of the Zenneck Wave by a Vertical Aperture (on a Planer Earth)," Radio Science, Vol. 13, No. 6, 1978, pp. 967-977.] (See Appendix II of our 1994 ITS Symposium paper on lightning. [Corum, K.L. and J.F. Corum, Nikola Tesla, Lightning Observations, and Stationary Waves, 1994, Appendix II, "The Zenneck Surface Wave."])

* Zenneck waves may be excited by bombarding the surface with "fast electrons." [Powel, C.J. and J.B. Swan, Physical Review, Vol. 118, 1960, p. 640.] (This certainly bears a striking resemblance to Tesla's experiments.)" ["Spherical Transmission Lines and Global Propagation, An Analysis of Tesla's Experimentally Determined Propagation Model," K. L. Corum, J. F. Corum, Ph.D., and J. F. X. Daum, Ph.D. 1996, p. 24, Appendix I. "Plasmons, Longitudinal Waves, and the World as an Electron Gas."]

In the absence of a receiver, it appears that such a bombardment occurs along the entire circumference or area of [minimum] maximum charge density of each concentric annular region described above, and, in the case of a 75 kW or greater Tesla transmitter this bombardment effect reaches all the way to the antipode. The connection between the elevated terminal and each of these annular regions is by means of displacement currents.

Regards,
Gary

Gerry,

You wrote:
> 1) If it were possible to ionize a path up to the upper troposphere, what power UV laser would it take?
> 2) how much power would it require to maintain ionization in the troposphere between transmitter and receiver (assuming that this portion of the path can even be ionized). We need to connect to the troposphere first before the second question can be answered, it seems.

These are two good questions for which I don't have ready answers.

I feel this is a good time for another interim summary statement, including an adjustment in my thinking.

There are two different types of system for the wireless transmission of electrical energy. These are 1) the Hertz wave or open circuit system and 2) the Tesla wave or closed circuit system. Based upon Henry's enlightening comments we can now safely discard any references to #1 and the principle of energy transmission through the earth-ionosphere cavity by means of electromagnetic radiation.

The basic Tesla transmitter consists of a helical resonator connected at its top to a spherical elevated terminal and at its bottom to a ground rod penetrating deep below the earth's surface. The resonator is excited by high-energy transient pulses either directly through a loosely coupled primary winding or indirectly through an air core transformer. Tesla transmitters pump the earth's charge resulting in an increase in charge density in the vicinity of the ground terminal that dissipates as a function of time.

The two fundamental principles behind the operation of a Tesla wave closed circuit system are:

1) Low frequency alternating current can be transmitted through the earth with low resistive loss due to the fact that the point-to-point resistance between antipodes of the earth is considerably less than 1 ohm.

2) Low frequency high voltage alternating current can be transmitted through the atmosphere with low loss. The electrical displacement takes place by a) electrostatic induction, b) electrical conduction, or a combination of these two.

The generic apparatus used to receive the transmitted energy also consists of a helical resonator connected at its top to a spherical elevated terminal and at its bottom to a deep ground rod.

>> The driving force that makes the ground current flow through the earth is the displacement current between the elevated terminal and the earth's surface.

> Thru the earth meaning thru its center? This is the part that I'm doubting.

And quite rightly so. In flowing from the pole of the transmitter to the antipode the current only gives the appearance of passing diametrically through the earth.

"When a [low frequency radio transmitter] circuit, connected to ground and to an elevated capacity oscillates, two effects separate and distinct are produced; Hertz waves are radiated in a direction at right angles to the axis of symmetry of the conductor, and simultaneously a current is passed through the earth. The former propagates with the speed of light, the latter with a velocity proportionate to the cosecant of an angle which from the origin to the opposite point of the globe varies from zero to 180°. Expressed in words, at the start the speed is infinite and diminishes, first rapidly and then slowly until a quadrant is traversed when the current proceeds with the speed of light. From that region on the velocity gradually increases, becoming infinite at the opposite point of the globe. In a patent granted to me in 1905, I have summed up this law of propagation in the statement that the projections of all half waves on the axis of symmetry of movement are equal, which means that the successive half waves, tho of different length, cover exactly the same area." [Tesla, Nikola, "The Effects of Static on Wireless transmission," ELECTRICAL EXPERIMENTER, January 1919, pp. 627, 658.]

» Of course with a Tesla transmitter the "Hertz waves" are minimized, and the current "passed through the earth" predominates.

"Let us imagine that my transmitter is located at this point, and that the current generated by it now passes through the earth. It does not pass through the earth in the ordinary acceptance of the term, it only penetrates to a certain depth according to the frequency. Most of it goes on the surface, but with frequencies such as I employ, it will dive a few miles below. It can be mathematically shown that it is immaterial how it passes; the aggregate effect of these currents is as if the whole current passes from the transmitter, which I call the pole, to the opposite point, which I call the antipode." [NIKOLA TESLA ON HIS WORK WITH ALTERNATING CURRENTS AND THEIR APPLICATION TO WIRELESS TELEGRAPHY, TELEPHONY AND TRANSMISSION OF POWER, pp. 138.]

". . . The electromagnetic energy travels with the speed of light, but see how the current flows. At the first moment, this current propagates exactly like the shadow of the moon at the earth's surface. It starts with infinite velocity from that point, but its speed rapidly diminishes; it flows slower and slower until it reaches the equator, 6,000 miles from the transmitter. At that point, the current flows with the speed of light -- that is, 300,000 kilometers per second. But, if you consider the resultant current through the globe along the axis of symmetry of propagation, the resultant current flows continuously with the same velocity of light.

"Whether this current passing through the center of the earth to the opposite side is real, or whether it is merely an effect of these surface currents, makes absolutely no difference. To understand the concept, one must imagine that the current from the transmitter flows straight to the opposite point of the globe." [Ibid, pp. 140-141.]

> I believe the displacement current from the topload to the earth completes the circuit that pulls conduction current from the earth to the topload via the coil.

This is what I think is happening as well.

> I believe these currents will mostly cancel and stay local.

Once again we are in agreement, and Tesla would agree too. The key phrase is "MOSTLY cancel." In speaking about the electrostatic field associated with an "elevated terminal charged to a high potential" Tesla stated that MOST OF IT "circulates locally and is useless except that it adds to the momentum," and that "a relatively small number of lines . . . however, go off to great distance and to . . . which is due the action at a distance." ["The True Wireless, ELECTRICAL EXPERIMENTER, May 1919] This physical principle that displacement currents can indeed "go off to great distance" is founded upon observation and is not adequately addressed by Maxwell's theory.

> Any current thru the earth's center, it seems, has to have a return current and I'm presuming that is via the atmosphere (ionosphere perhaps).

Let's put it this way. Any current flowing through the spherically conducting earth has to be balanced by an equivalent electrical displacement of the opposite sign through the space above it. This equivalent electrical displacement is achieved by means of electrostatic induction, electrical conduction, or a combination of these two forms of electrical current.

In the case of closely spaced low power transmitting-receiving apparatus, such as I have been using, the electrical displacement exists between the two elevated terminals in the form of displacement current. Remove the receiver from the equation and "the small number of lines" redistribute radially.

> Displacement current was invented to allow Norton's Theorem to hold true (iirc) so any conduction current thru the earth has to have a return current somewhere.

That sums things up nicely.

> In a coaxial transmission line, a current wave propagating down the center conductor has an equally opposite current wave propagating down the coaxial shield, for example.

This brings to mind Bill's Goubau transmission line where a portion of the shield is eliminated and the current still propagates along the center conductor. Those two big cones at both ends of the one-wire section always strike me as comprising the two plates of a capacitor.

>> Keep in mind that Earth is a negatively charged body relative to the conducting ionosphere and that an operating Tesla coil transmitter creates a periodic annular disturbance in this charge.

> I believe the disturbance would mostly stay local except for an amount that matches any disturbance the topload has to the atmosphere. Then the question becomes: does the ground disturbance that doesn't stay local go thru the earth's center or stay on the earth's surface due to skin effect. One would need to know the average conductivity (ohm-meters) of the earth to quantitize this.

Once again, the current only gives the appearance of passing diametrically through the earth. The electron gas model should prove useful for predicting the behavior of the electrostatic field associated with the elevated terminal within the context of the expanding longitudinal "compressional" electric waves characterized by variations in density of the earth's E-field and associated charge carriers.

As you can tell from my above comments I have adjusted my thinking in regards to this "closed circuit" and "open circuit" thing. There is no substantial difference in the transmitting apparatus whether or not the earth is resonated when the system is in operation. If a harmonic of the approximately 12 Hz fundamental earth resonance frequency is used-such as 29.467 kHz-then the only difference is the power level at which the system is operated. In any case the receiving apparatus are identical. No matter what, Tesla's World Wireless System is a closed circuit system based upon two fundamental principles:

1) That low frequency alternating current can be transmitted through the earth with low resistive loss due to the fact that the point-to-point resistance between antipodes of the earth is considerably less than 1 ohm.

2) That low frequency high voltage alternating current can be transmitted through the atmosphere with low loss. The electrical displacement takes place by a) electrostatic induction, b) true electrical conduction, or a combination of these two.

Regards,
Gary